Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
{search_item}

Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Sapphirina auronitens

Carrie Bow Cay Marine Field Station

bar

Klaus RuetzlerResearch Zoologist


Rützler, Klaus, Piantoni, Carla, van Soest, Rob W. M. and Diaz, Cristina 2014. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay. Zootaxa, 3805: 1-129. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.

Hill, Malcolm S., Hill, April L., Lopez, Jose, Peterson, Kevin J., Pomponi, Shirley, Diaz, Maria C., Thacker, Robert W., Adamska, Maja, Boury-Esnault, Nicole, Cárdenas, Paco, Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia, Danka, Elizabeth, De Laine, Bre-Onna, Formica, Dawn, Hajdu, Eduardo, Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele, Klontz, Sarah, Morrow, Christine C., Patel, Jignasa, Picton, Bernard, Pisani, Davide, Pohlmann, Deborah, Redmond, Niamh E., Reed, John, Richey, Stacy, et al 2013. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes. Plos One, 8(1): e50437 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050437

Alvizu, A., Díaz, M. C., Bastidas, C., Rützler, Klaus, Thacker, R. W. and Márquez, L. M. 2013. A skeleton-less sponge of Caribbean mangroves: invasive or undescribed?. Invertebrate Biology, 132(2): 81-94. doi:10.1111/ivb.12015

Villamizar, Estrella, Díaz, María C., Rützler, Klaus and De Nóbrega, Renato 2013. Biodiversity, ecological structure, and change in the sponge community of different geomorphological zones of the barrier fore reef at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Marine Ecology, doi:10.1111/maec.12099

Rützler, Klaus 2012. The Role of Sponges in the Mesoamerican Barrier-Reef Ecosystem, Belize. In: Becerro, Mikel A. and Uriz, Maria J., Advances in Sponge Science: Phylogeny, Systematics, Ecology. Elsevier, pp.211-271.

Berube, Melissa D., Dunbar, Stephen G., Rützler, Klaus and Hayes, William K. 2012. Home Range and Foraging Ecology of Juvenile Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Inshore Reefs of Honduras. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 11(1): 33-43. doi:10.2744/CCB-0898.1

Diaz, Maria C. and Rützler, Klaus 2011. Biodiversity of sponges: Belize and beyond, to the greater Caribbean (In: Too Precious to Drill: the Marine Biodiversity of Belize). Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 19(6): 57-65.

Rützler, Klaus 2010. Demospongiae. In: Knowlton, Robert, McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology. New York: McGraw Hill, pp.1-9.

Pisera, Andrzej, Rützler, Klaus, Kaz'mierczak, Jozef and Kempe, Stephan 2010. Sponges in an extreme environment: suberitids from the quasi-marine Satonda Island crater lake (Sumbawa, Indonesia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90(1): 203-212. doi:10.1017/S0025315409990968

Maldonado, Manuel, Riesgo, Ana, Bucci, Arianna and Rützler, Klaus 2010. Revisiting silicon budgets at a tropical continental shelf: Silica standing stocks in sponges surpass those in diatoms. Limnology and Oceanography, 55(5): 2001-2010. doi:10.4319/lo.2010.55.5.2001

Miller, Amber N., Strychar, Kevin B., Shirley, Thomas C. and Rützler, Klaus 2010. Effects of Heat and Salinity Stress on the Sponge Cliona celata. International Journal of Biology, 2(2): 3-16.

Lang, Michael A., Macintyre, Ian G. and Rützler, Klaus 2009. Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 38: 1-529. doi:10.5479/si.01960768.38.1

Rützler, Klaus, van Soest, Rob W. M. and Piantoni, Carla 2009. Sponges (Porifera) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota. Vol. 1, Biodiversity. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, pp.285-313.

Diaz, Maria C. and Rützler, Klaus 2009. Biodiversity and Abundance of Sponges in Caribbean Mangrove: Indicators of Environmental Quality. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 38: 151-172. doi:10.5479/si.01960768.38.151

Rützler, Klaus 2009. Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems: Thirty-Eight Years of Smithsonian Marine Science in Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 38: 43-71.

Rützler, Klaus 2009. Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems: Thirty-Five Years of Smithsonian Marine Science in Belize. In: Lang, Michael A., Macintyre, Ian G. and Rützler, Klaus, Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press,(Smithsonian contributions to the marine sciences (no. 38)) pp.43-71.

Feller, Ilka C. and Rützler, Klaus. Mangroves of the reef domain: a case study in Belize, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), UNESCO, EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK. 2008.

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Piantoni, Carla 2008. CCRE rpeorts 2007, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 42 pages.

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Piantoni, Carla 2008. CCRE reports 2007-2008, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 56 pages.

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Piantoni Dietrich, Carla 2007. CCRE reports 2006-2007, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 46 pages.

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Piantoni Dietrich, Carla 2007. CCRE Rpeorts 2006, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 50 pages.

Thacker, Robert W., Diaz, Maria Cristina, Rützler, Klaus, Erwin, Patrick M., Kimble, Steven J. A., Pierce, Melissa J. and Dillard, Sandra L. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships among the filamentous cyanobacterial symbionts of Caribbean sponges and a comparison of photosynthetic production between sponges hosting filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria. In: Custódio, M. R., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Hajdu, E. and Muricy, G., Porifera research: Biodiversity, innovation and sustainability. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional,(Série Livros 28) pp.621-626.

Diaz, Maria C., Thacker, Robert W., Rützler, Klaus and Piantoni, Carla 2007. Two new haplosclerid sponges from Caribbean Panamá with symbiotic filamentous cyanobacteria, and an overview of sponge-cyanobacteria associations. In: Custódio, M. R., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Hajdu, E. and Muricy, G., Porifera research: Biodiversity, innovation and sustainability. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional,(Serie Livros 28) pp.31-39.

Rützler, Klaus, Maldonado, M., Piantoni, C. and Riesgo, A. 2007. Iotrochota revisited: a new sponge and review of species from the western tropical Atlantic (Poecilosclerida, Iotrochotidae). Invertebrate Systematics, 21: 173-185.

Rützler, Klaus, Piantoni, C. and Díaz, M. C. 2007. Lissodendoryx: rediscovered type and new tropical western Atlantic species (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida: Coelosphaeridae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87: 1491–1510

Erpenbeck, D., Duran, S., Rützler, Klaus, Paul, Valerie J., Hooper, J. N. A. and Wörheide, G. 2007. Towards a DNA taxonomy of Caribbean demosponges: a gene tree reconstructed from partial mitochondrial CO1 gene sequences supports previous rDNA phylogenies and provides a new perspective on the systematics of Demospongiae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87(6): 1563-1570. doi:10.1017/S0025315407058195

Rützler, Klaus, Duran, S. and Piantoni, C. 2007. Adaptation of reef and mangrove sponges to stress: evidence for ecological speciation exemplified by Chondrilla caribensis new species (Demospongiae, Chondrosida). Marine Ecology, 28(1): 95-111. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2007.00183.x

Duran, S. and Rützler, Klaus 2006. Ecological speciation in a Caribbean marine sponge. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40: 292-297.

Duran, S. and Rützler, Klaus 2006. Molecular evidence for ecological speciation in a mangrove-reef sponge. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40: 292-297.

Thacker, Robert W., Díaz, M. C., Rützler, Klaus, Erwin, P., Kimble, J. A. and Pierce, M. J. 2006. "Filamentous cyanobacterial symbionts of Caribbean Sponges". 7th International Sponge Symposium : biodiversity, innovation, sustainability, : 261

Díaz, M. C., Hajdu, E., Rützler, Klaus and Piantoni, C. 2006. "Mycale (Paresperella) spp. (Mycalidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae) in the tropical western Atlantic: elusive ghost or unknown chimera?". 7th International Sponge Symposium : biodiversity, innovation, sustainability, : 279

Rützler, Klaus 2006. "Porifera collections in North America. In, E. Hajdu, A. Ereskovsky, J.N.A. Hooper, H.M. Reiswig, K. Ratzler, T. Samaai, R.W.M. van Soest, C..Volkmer-Ribeiro & W. Zhang: Porifera collections around the world, a status report for the year 2005". 7th International Sponge Symposium : biodiversity, innovation, sustainability, : 12

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Dietrich, Carla 2006. CCRE reports 2005, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 38 pages.

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Dietrich, Carla 2006. CCRE reports 2005-2006, Carribean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 39 pages.

Díaz, M. C., Thacker, Robert W. and Rützler, Klaus 2006. "Haliclona sp. nov. and Xestospongia sp. nov. (Haplosclerida): Two new sponge species from Bocas del Toro (Panam ) with a unique cyanobacterial association". 7th International Sponge Symposium : biodiversity, innovation, sustainability, : 280

Rützler, Klaus. 2006. Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems: 30-years of Smithsonian marine science in Belize. .

Ruetzler, Klaus, Carpenter, Mike and Dietrich, Carla 2005. CCRE reports 2002-2004, Caribbean coral reef ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program. 60 pages.

Díaz, M. C., Van Soest, Rob W. M., Rützler, Klaus and Guzman, Hector M. 2005. Aplysina chiriquiensis, a new pedunculate sponge from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama, Eastern Pacific (Aplysinidae, Verongida). Zootaxa, 1012: 1-12.

Rützler, Klaus 2005. Tortugas Marine Laboratory: Threshold to modern sponge biology. In: Field Guide to the Major Organisms and Processes Building Reefs and Islands of the Dry Tortugas: The Carnegie Dry Tortugas Laboratory Centennial Celebration (1905-2005). pp.34-35.

Rützler, Klaus 2005. Smithsonian CCRE Reports 1999-2001. Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems National Museum of Natural History.

Maldonado, M., Cortadellas, N., Trillas, M. I. and Rützler, Klaus 2005. Endosymbiotic yeast maternally transmitted in a marine sponge. Biological Bulletin, 209(2): 94-106.

Díaz, M. C., Smith, K. P. and Rützler, Klaus 2004. Sponge species richness and abundance as indicators of mangrove epibenthic community health. Atoll Research Bulletin, 518: 1-17. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.518.1

Rützler, Klaus, Goodbody, I., Díaz, M. C., Feller, Ilka C. and Macintyre, Ian G. 2004. The aquatic Environment of Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin, 512: 1-48. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.512.1

Rützler, Klaus 2004. Sponges on coral reefs: A community shaped by competitive cooperation. In: Pansini, M., Pronzato, R., Bavestrello, G. and Manconi, R., Sponge Science in the New Millennium. Rapallo, Genova: Officine Grafiche Canessa,(Bolletino dei Musei e degli Instituti Biologici dell' Universitá di Genova) pp.85-148.

Macintyre, Ian G., Rützler, Klaus and Feller, Ilka C. 2004. The Twin Cays Mangrove Ecosystem, Belize: biodiversity, Geological History, and Two Decades of Change. Atoll Research Bulletin, 520

Rützler, Klaus 2003. Sponge population development and critical parameters at Twin Cays. The Twin Cays Mangrove Ecosystem, Belize, : 7-8.

Bouchet, Philippe and Rützler, Klaus 2003. Clionidae d'Orbigny, 1851 (Porifera, Hadromerida): proposed emendment of spelling to Clionaiidae to remove homonymy with Clionidae Rafinesques, 1815 (Mollusca, Pteropoda). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 60(2): 99-102.

Rützler, Klaus, van Soest, Rob W. M. and Alvarez, B. 2003. Svenzea zeai, Caribbean reef sponge with a giant lara, and Scopalina ruetzleri: a comparative fine-structural approach to classification (Demospongiae, Halichondrida, Dictyonellidae). Invertebrate Biology, 122: 203-222.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Impact of crustose clionid sponges on Caribbean reef corals. Acta Geologica Hispanica, 37: 61-72.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. After 30 years, still in lovewith the barrier reef of Belize. Anniversary of the Smithsonian Carrie Bow Marine Field Station. Belize Audubon Society Newsletter, 34(1): 11-12.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Sponges on coral reefs: A community shaped by competitive cooperation. Bolletim Museu Istituto di Biologie, Genova, 66-67: 170

Díaz, M. C., Rützler, Klaus, Cary, C. and Feller, Ilka C. 2002. Distribution and phylogenetic affinities of nitrifying microbes associated to epibiont sponges of nutrient limited Rhizophora mangle stands. Bolletim Museu Istituto di Biologie, Genova, 66-67: 170

Alvarez, B., van Soest, Rob W. M. and Rützler, Klaus 2002. Svenzea, a new genus of Dictyonellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) from tropical reef environments, with description of two new species. Contributions to Zoology, 71: 171-176.

Rützler, Klaus and Vacelet, Jean 2002. Family Acanthochaetetidae Fisher, 1970. In: Hooper, John and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.275-278.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Aleconidae Rosell, 1996. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.281-290.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Clionaidae D'Orbigny, 1851. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.173-185.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Placospongiidae Gray, 1867. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.196-200.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Spirastrellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.220-223.

Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Timeiidae Topsent, 1928. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.266-267.

von Soest, R. W. M. and Rützler, Klaus 2002. Family Tetillidae Sollas, 1886. In: Hooper, J. N. A. and van Soest, Rob W. M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.85-98.

Opishinski, T. B., Spaulding, M. L., Rützler, Klaus and Carpenter, M.. 2001. A real time environmental data monitoring, management and analysis system for the coral reefs off the coast of Belize. .

Díaz, M. C. and Rützler, Klaus 2001. Sponges: An essential component of caribbean coral reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69(2): 535-546.

Díaz, M. C. and Rützler, Klaus 2001. Sponges: An essential component of Caribbean coral reefs Proceedings, International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, 1999. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69: 535-546.

Rützler, Klaus 2001. Exploring Neptune's Gardens: From Landlubber to Reef Biologist. Atoll Research Bulletin, 494(10): 176-197.

Rützler, Klaus, Díaz, M. C., van Soest, Rob W. M., Zea, S., Smith, K. P., Alvarez, B. and Wulff, J. 2000. Diversity of sponge fauna in mangrove ponds, Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin, 467: 229-248. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.467.229

Macintyre, Ian G., Goodbody, I., Rützler, Klaus, Littler, Diane S. and Littler, Mark M. 2000. A general biological and geological survey of the rims of ponds in the major mangrove islands of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin, 467: 15-44. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.467.15

Macintyre, Ian G. and Rützler, Klaus 2000. Natural History of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin, 466-480: 333

Rützler, Klaus and Hooper, N. A. 2000. Two new genera of hadromerid sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae). Zoosystema, 22(2): 337-344.

Weyrer, S., Rützler, Klaus and Rieger, R. 1999. Serotonin in cells of Tedania ignis (Porifera, Poecilosclerida). Origin and Outlook, Proceedings of the 5th International Sponge Symposium, Brisbane (1998).Memoires of the Queensland Museum, 44: 37-43.

Rützler, Klaus, Carpenter, M., Smith, K. and Robbart, M. 1999. Smithsonian CCRE Reports 1996-1998 Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program.

Richardson, Susan L. and Rützler, Klaus 1999. Bacterial endosymbionts in the agglutinating foraminiferan Spiculidendron corallicolum Ruetzler and Richardson, 1996. Symbiosis, 26: 299-312.

Rützler, Klaus and Feller, Ilka C. 1999. Mangrove swamp communities: An approach in Belize. In: Yañéz-Arancibia, A. and Lara-Dominguez, L., Mangrove Ecosystems in Tropical America: Structure, Function and Management. Silver Spring, MD: Universidad Autonoma de Campeche,(EPOMEX Serie Científica) pp.39-49.

Alvarez, B., van Soest, Rob W. M. and Rützler, Klaus 1998. A Revision of the Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) of the Central-West Atlantic Region. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 598: 1-47. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.598

Hajdu, E. and Rützler, Klaus 1998. Sponges, genus Mycale (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera), from a Caribbean mangrove and comments on subgeneric classification. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 111(4): 737-773.

Volkmer-Ribeiro, C. and Rützler, Klaus 1997. Pachyrotula, a new genus of freshwater sponges from New Caledonia (Porifera: Spongillidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 110(4): 489-501.

Boury-Esnault, N. and Rützler, Klaus 1997. Thesaurus of sponge morphology. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 596: 1-55. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.596

Rützler, Klaus 1997. The role of psammobiontic sponges in the reef community. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 1393-1398.

Rützler, Klaus and Richardson, S. 1996. The Caribbean spicule tree: a sponge-imitating foraminifer (Astrorhizidae). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturales de Belgique, Biologie suppl., 66: 143-151.

Rützler, Klaus and Feller, C. 1996. Caribbean Mangrove Swamps. Scientific American, 274(3): 94-99.

Rützler, Klaus and Feller, Ilka C. 1996. Ein mangrovenbiotop im barriere-riff vor Belize. Spektrum der Wissenschaftliche, : 60-66.

Rützler, Klaus 1996. Sponge diving—Professional but not for profit. In: Lang, Michael A. and Baldwin, Carole C., Methods and techniques of underwater research. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Scientific Diving Symposium. pp.183-204.

Rützler, Klaus and Smith, K. P. 1996. Caribbean coral reef ecosystems progress report 1994/1995 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Soest, R. v. and Rützler, Klaus 1996. The application of interactive multimedia software for species data storage and computer-assisted identification of Porifera. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 66: 63-72.

Rützler, Klaus. 1996. Sponge diving - Professional but not for profit. Nahant, MA: .

van Soest, Rob W. M., Schalk, P. H., Smith, K., Picton, B. E., Brugman, M., Diaz, M. C., Sanders, M. L., De Weerdt, W. H. and Rützler, Klaus 1996. Por-Linnaeus: the application of interactive multimedia software for species data storage and computer assisted identification of porifera. In: Willenz, Philippe, Recent advances in sponge biodiversity inventory and documentations. Brussels: pp.63-72.

Rützler, Klaus 1995. Review of: Sponges in time and Space - Biology, Chemistry, Paleontology. Proc. 4th Int'l. Porifera Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 19-23 April 1993. A.A. Balkema. 515 pp. Bulletin of Marine Science, 56: 909-910.

Rützler, Klaus 1995. Low-tide exposure of sponges in a Caribbean mangrove community. Marine Ecology, 16: 165-179.

Rützler, Klaus 1994. Report 1993, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems National Museum of Natural History.

Harrison, F. W., Gardiner, S. L., Rützler, Klaus and Fisher, C. R. 1994. On the occurrence of endosymbiotic bacteria in a new species of sponge from hydrocarbon seep communities in the Gulf of Mexico. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 113: 419-420.

Rützler, Klaus and Muzik, K. M. 1993. Terpios hoshinota, a new cyanobacteriosponge threatening Pacific Reefs. Recent advances in systematics and ecology of sponges.Scientia Marina, 57: 395-403.

Rützler, Klaus and Smith, K. P. 1993. The genus Terpios (Suberitidae) and new species in the lobiceps complex. Recent advances in systematics and ecology of sponges.Scientia Marina, 57: 381-393.

Uriz, M. J. and Rützler, Klaus 1993. Recent Advances in Ecology and Systematics of Sponges. Scientia Marina, 57(4): 273-432.

Pettit, G. R., Gao, F., Doubek, D. L., Boyd, M. R., Hamel, E., Bai, R., Schmidt, J. M., Tackett, L. P. and Rützler, Klaus 1993. Anti neoplastic agents. CCLII. Isolation and structure of Halistatin 2 from the Comoros marine sponge Axinella carteri. Gazetta Chimica Italiana, 123: 371-377.

Rützler, Klaus and Klontz, S. 1993. Report 1990-1992, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History.

Rützler, Klaus and Smith, K. P. 1992. Guide to western Atlantic species of Cinachyrella (Porifera: Tetillidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 105: 148-165.

de Weerdt, W. H., Rützler, Klaus and Smith, K. P. 1991. The Chalinidae (Porifera) of Twin Cays, Belize, and adjacent waters. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 104(1): 189-205.

Macintyre, Ian G., Rützler, Klaus, Norris, James N., Smith, K. P., Cairns, Stephen D., Bucher, K. E. and Steneck, Robert S. 1991. An early holocene reef in the Western Atlantic: submersible invesigations of a deep relict reef off the west coast of Barbados, W. I. Coral Reefs, 10: 167-174.

De Vos, L., Rützler, Klaus, Boury-Esnault, N., Donadey, C. and Vacelet, J. 1991. Atlas of sponge morphology Smithsonian lnstitution Press. 117 pages.

Vicente, V. P., Rützler, Klaus and Carballeira, N. M. 1991. Comparative morphology, ecology, and fatty acid composition of West Indian Spheciospongia (Demospongea). Marine Ecology, 12: 211-226.

Rützler, Klaus and Klontz, S. 1990. Report 1988-1989, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Rützler, Klaus 1990. New perspectives in sponge biology Smithsonian Institution Press.

Pettit, G. R., Clewlow, P. J., Dufresne, C., Doubek, D. L., Cerny, R. L. and Rützler, Klaus 1990. Antineoplastic agents 193 Isolation and structure of the cyclic peptide hymenistatin 1. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 68: 708-711.

Rützler, Klaus 1990. Association between Caribbean sponges and photosynthetic organisms. In: Rützler, Klaus, New Perspective in Sponge Biology: 3d International Sponge Conference, 1985. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp.455-466.

Rützler, Klaus 1988. Mangrove sponge disease induced by cyanobacterial symbionts: failure of a primitive immune system?. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 5: 143-149.

Rützler, Klaus and Feller, C. 1988. Mangrove swamp communities. Oceanus, 30(4): 16-24.

Rützler, Klaus 1988. A mangrove ecosystem: Twin Cays, Belize. Report from a workshop National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Rützler, Klaus 1987. Tetillidae (Spirophorida, Porifera): A taxonomic reevaluation. Taxonomy of Sponges NATO ASI Series, 13: 189-203.

Rützler, Klaus 1987. Report 1987, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Rützler, Klaus 1986. Report 1986, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Rützler, Klaus and Stone, S. M. 1986. Discovery and significance of Albany Hancock's microscope preparations of excavating sponges (Porifera: Hadromerida: Clionidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 99: 658-675.

Rützler, Klaus 1986. Phylum Porifera (Sponges). In: Sterrer, Wolfgang, Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda: A Systematic Guide to the Identification of Organisms. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp.111-127.

Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., Arenson, C. and Rützler, Klaus 1986. Scleractinia. In: Sterrer, W., Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, pp.159

Rützler, Klaus and Hartman, W. D. 1985. Abstracts, third international conference on the biology of sponges Smithsonian Institution and Yale University.

Rützler, Klaus 1985. Porifera. In: Sterrer, W., Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. NY: John Wiley and Sons, pp.111-128.

Pomponi, S. and Rützler, Klaus 1983. An illustrated field guide to the sponges of Looe Key and Key Largo national marine sanctuaries NOAA Technical Report.

Zea, S. and Rützler, Klaus 1983. A new species of Xestospongia (Porifera: Demospongea), from the Columbian Caribbean. Caldasia, 10: 817-831.

Rützler, Klaus and Santavy, D. L. 1983. The black band disease of Atlantic reef corals. 1: Description of the cyanophyte pathogen. Marine Ecology, 4: 301-319.

Soest, R. W. M. v., Stone, S. M., Boury-Esnault, N. and Rützler, Klaus 1983. Catalogue of the Duchassaing and Michelotti (1864) collection of west indian sponges (Porifera). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 9(21): 189-205.

Zea, S. and Rützler, Klaus 1983. A new species of Xestospongia (Porifera: Demospongea), from the colombian caribbean. Caldasia, XIII(65): 818-831.

Rützler, Klaus, Santavy, D. L. and Antonius, A. 1983. The black band disease of Atlantic reef corals, III: Distribution, ecology, and development. Marine Ecology, 4: 329-358.

Rützler, Klaus 1982. Porifera. In: Schwartz, Maurice L., The Encyclopedia of Beaches and Coastal Environments. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company, pp.650-654.

Rützler, Klaus and Macintyre, Ian G. 1982. The Atlantic barrier reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, 1: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 12: 539 doi:10.5479/si.01960768.12.539

Macintyre, Ian G., Rützler, Klaus, Norris, James N. and Fauchald, Kristian 1982. A submarine cave near Columbus Cay, a bizarre cryptic habitat. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 12: 127-141. doi:10.5479/si.01960768.12.539

Rützler, Klaus and Ferraris, Joan D. 1982. Terrestrial environment and climate, Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 12: 77-91. doi:10.5479/si.01960768.12.539

Kjerfve, B., Rützler, Klaus and Kierspe, G. H. 1982. Tides at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In: The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, 1: Structure and Communities..(Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Sciences) pp.47-51.

Rützler, Klaus 1982. Habitat distribution and community structure of the barrier reef complex near Carrie Bow Cay. In: The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities.(Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences) pp.9-45.

Rützler, Klaus 1981. Review of: Living and fossil sponges, by W.D. Hartman, J.W. Wend and F. Wiedenmayer. Bulletin of Marine Science, 31(3): 474-475.

Rützler, Klaus 1981. An unusual bluegreen alga symbiotic with two new species of Ulosa (Porifera: Hymeniacidonidae) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Marine Ecology, 2: 35-50.

Rützler, Klaus and Bromley, R. G. 1981. Cliona rhodensis, new species (Porifera: Hadromerida) from the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 94: 1219-1225.

Rützler, Klaus, Ferraris, Joan D. and Larson, R. J. 1980. A new plankton sampler for coral reefs. Marine Ecology, 1: 65-71.

Rützler, Klaus 1978. Review of: Shallow-water sponges of the Western Bahamas, by F. Wiedenmayer. The Quarterly review of biology, 53: 465-466.

Rützler, Klaus 1978. Report on a freshwater sponge (Porifera: Spongillidae) from the Andaman Islands. Results of the Austrian-Indian Hydrobiological Mission 1976 to the Andaman Islands. Part II. Aquatic Biology, 3: 142-147.

Rützler, Klaus and Macintyre, Ian G. 1978. Siliceous sponge spicules in coral reef sediments. Marine Biology, 49: 147-159.

Rützler, Klaus 1978. Photogrammetry of reef environments by helium balloon. In: Stoddart, David R. and Johannes, R. E., Coral Reefs: Research Methods: Monographs on oceanographic methodology. UNESCO,(UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology) pp.45-52.

Rützler, Klaus 1978. Sponges in coral reefs. In: Stoddart, David R. and Johannes, R. E., Coral Reefs: Research Methods: Monographs on oceanographic methodology. UNESCO,(UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology) pp.299-313.

Rützler, Klaus 1978. Sponges in Coral Reef. In: Stoddart, David R. and Johannes, R. E., Coral Reefs: Research Methods. Paris: United Nations, Economic and Social Council, pp.299-313.

Collette, Bruce B. and Rützler, Klaus 1977. Reef fishes over sponge bottoms off the mouth of the Amazon River. Proceedings, Third International Coral Reef Symposium, Miami, Florida: University of Miami, : 305-310.

Rützler, Klaus 1976. Ecology of Tunisian commercial sponges. Tethys, 7: 249-264.

Rützler, Klaus 1976. Cliona, dark future for an oceanic island?. Bermuda Biological Station, Newsletter, 5(2-3): 2

Rützler, Klaus 1975. The role of burrowing sponges in bioerosion. Oecologia (Berlin), 19: 203-216.

Jones, Meredith L. and Rützler, Klaus 1975. Invertebrates of the upper chamber, Gatun Locks, Panamá Canal, with emphasis on Trochospongilla leidii (Porifera). Marine Biology, 33: 57-66.

Rützler, Klaus 1974. The burrowing sponges of Bermuda. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 165: 1-32. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.165

Rützler, Klaus and Rieger, G. 1973. Sponge burrowing: Fine structure of Cliona lampa penetrating calcareous substrata. Marine Biology, 21: 144-162.

Kirsteuer, E. and Rützler, Klaus 1973. Additional notes on Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida), based on scanning electron microscope observations. Marine Biology, 20: 78-87.

Rützler, Klaus 1973. Clionid sponges from the coast of Tunisia. Bulletin Institut d'Océanographie et de Peche, Salammbo, 2: 623-636.

Rützler, Klaus 1972. Principles of sponge distribution in Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Proceedings, Symposium on Corals and Coral Reefs, 1969, Cochin: Marine Biological Association of India, : 315-332.

Rützler, Klaus 1971. Bredin-Archbold Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Burrowing sponges, Genus Siphonodictyon Bergquist, from the Caribbean. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 77: 1-37. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.77

Rützler, Klaus and Sterrer, W. 1970. Oil pollution: Damage observed in tropical communities aliong the Atlantic seaboard of Panamá. Bioscience, 20: 222-224.

Forstner, H. and Rützler, Klaus 1970. Measurements of the micro-climate in littoral marine habitats. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 8: 225-249.

Rützler, Klaus 1970. Spatial competition among Porifera: Solution by epizoism. Oecologia, 5: 85-95.

Rützler, Klaus 1969. The mangrove community: Aspects of its structure, faunistics, and ecology. Memorias, Simposio International Lagunas Costeras, 1967, UNAM: Mexico, D.F., 515-536: 515-536.

Burkholder, P. and Rützler, Klaus 1969. Antimicrobical activity in some marine sponges. Nature, 222: 984

Forstner, H. and Rützler, Klaus 1969. Two temperature-compensated thermistor current meters for use in marine ecology. Journal of Marine Research, 27: 263-271.

Rützler, Klaus 1968. Fresh-water sponges from New Caledonia. Cahiers d'O.R.S.T.0.M.series Hydrobiologie, 2: 57-66.

Rützler, Klaus 1968. Loxosomella from Tedania ignis, the Caribbean fire sponge. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 124(3650): 1-11, 10 figures. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.124-3650.1

Towe, Kenneth M. and Rützler, Klaus 1968. Lepidocrocite iron mineralization in keratose sponge granules. Science, 162: 268-269.

Jones, Meredith L., Manning, Raymond B., Pawson, David L., Rosewater, Joseph and Rützler, Klaus 1967. Review of: Biotoxicology: Poisonous and venomous animals of the world. vol. 1 Invertebrates. Science, 156: 795

Rützler, Klaus 1967. Liste und Verteilung der Poriferen aus der Umgebung von Rovinj, Istrien. Thalassia Jugoslavica, 3: 73-87.

Rützler, Klaus 1966. Die Poriferen einer Sorrentiner HAhle Ergebnisse der +stereichischen Tyrrhenia-Expedition. Teil XVIII. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 176: 303-319.

Rützler, Klaus 1965. Systematik und A-kologie der Poriferen aus Litoral Schattengebieten der Nordadria. Zeitschrift fnr Morphologie und +kologie der Tiere, 55: 1-82.

Rützler, Klaus 1965. SubstratstabilitSt als Akologischer Faktor im marinen Benthos, dargestellt am Beispiel adriatischer Poriferen. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie, 50: 281-292.

Rützler, Klaus 1964. Aspects of littoral life in the Indian Ocean. Atti del Seminario di Studii Biologici (Bari, Italy), 1: 1-17.

Rützler, Klaus and Sara, M. 1962. Diplastrella ornata, eine neue mediterrane Art der Familie Spirastrellidae (Demospongiae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 169: 231-236.

Russ, K. and Rützler, Klaus 1959. Zur Kenntnis der Schwammfauna unterseeischer HAhlen Ergebnisse der +sterreichischen Tyrrhenia-Expedition. Teil XVII. Pubblicazione della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, 30: 756-787.

[ TOP ]