Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
Website Search Box

Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Nemertean, Tubulanus polymorphus

Tubulanus rhabdotus (Palaeonemertea)


Jon L. NorenburgChair & Research Zoologist

Ament-Velásquez, S. L., Figuet, E., Ballenghien, M., Zattara, Eduardo E., Norenburg, Jon L., Fernández-Álvarez, F. A., Bierne, J., Bierne, N. and Galtier, N. 2016. Population genomics of sexual and asexual lineages in fissiparous ribbon worms (Lineus, Nemertea): hybridization, polyploidy and the Meselson effect. Molecular ecology, 25(14): 3356-3369. doi:10.1111/mec.13717

Leasi, Francesca, da Silva Andrade, Sonia C. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2016. At least some meiofaunal species are not everywhere. Indication of geographic, ecological and geological barriers affecting the dispersion of species of Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea). Molecular Ecology, 25: 1381-1397. doi:10.1111/mec.13568

Mendes, Cecili B., Matthews-Cascon, Helena and Norenburg, Jon L. 2016. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Zootaxa, 4061(2): 146-156. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4061.2.4

Leasi, Francesca, Gaynus, Camille, Mahardini, Angka, Moore, Tiara N., Norenburg, Jon L. and Barber, Paul H. 2016. Spatial and ecologic distribution of neglected microinvertebrate communities across endangered ecosystems: meiofauna in Bali (Indonesia). Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective, 37(5): 970-987. doi:10.1111/maec.12305

Scarpa, Fabio, Cossu, Piero, Sanna, Daria, Lai, Tiziana, Norenburg, Jon L., Curini-Galletti, Marco and Casu, Marco 2015. An 18S and 28S-based clock calibration for marine Proseriata (Platyhelminthes). Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology, 463: 22-31. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2014.10.020

Leasi, Francesca and Norenburg, Jon L. 2014. The Necessity of DNA Taxonomy to Reveal Cryptic Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Meiofauna, with a Focus on Nemertea. PLoS ONE, 9(8): 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104385

Chen, Haixia, Sun, Shichun, Norenburg, Jon L. and Sundberg, Per 2014. Mutation and selection cause codon usage and bias in mitochondrial genomes of ribbon worms. PLoS One, 9(1): 1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085631

Gonzalez-Cueto, Jaime, Quiroga, Sigmer and Norenburg, Jon L. 2014. A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Zookeys, 439: 83-108. doi:10.3897/zookeys.439.5965

Fonseca, Gustavo, Norenburg, Jon L. and Domenico, Maikon Di 2014. Editorial: diversity of marine meiofauna on the coast of Brazil. Marine Biodiversity, : 1-4. doi:10.1007/s12526-014-0261-0

Andrade, Sonia C. S., Montenegro, Horácio, Strand, Malin, Schwartz, Megan, Kajihara, Hiroshi, Norenburg, Jon L., Turbeville, James M., Sundberg, Per and Giribet, Gonzalo 2014. A transcriptomic approach to ribbon worm systematics (Nemertea): resolving the Pilidiophora problem. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31(12): 3206-3215. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu253

Martínez, Alejandro, Di Domenico, Maikon, Jörger, Katharina, Norenburg, Jon L. and Worsaae, Katrine 2013. Description of three new species of Protodrilus (Annelida, Protodrilidae) from Central America. Marine Biology Research, 9(7): 676-691. doi:10.1080/17451000.2013.765574

Kajihara, Hiroshi, Sun, Shi-Chun, Chernyshev, Alexei V., Chen, Hai-Xia, Ito, Katsutoshi, Asakawa, Manabu, Maslakova, Svetlana A., Norenburg, Jon L., Strand, Malin, Sundberg, Per and Iwata, Fumio 2013. Taxonomic Identity of a Tetrodotoxin-Accumulating Ribbon-worm Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea): A Species Artificially Introduced from the Pacific to Europe. Zoological Science, 30(11): 985-997. doi:10.2108/zsj.30.985

Andrade, Sónia C. S., Strand, Malin, Schwartz, Megan, Chen, Haixia, Kajihara, Hiroshi, von Döhren, Jörn, Sun, Shichun, Junoy, Juan, Thiel, Martin, Norenburg, Jon L., Turbeville, James M., Giribet, Gonzalo and Sundberg, Per 2012. Disentangling ribbon worm relationships: multi-locus analysis supports traditional classification of the phylum Nemertea. Cladistics, 28(2): 141-159. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00376.x

Chen, Hai-Xia, Sun, Shi-Chun, Sundberg, Per, Ren, Wei-Cheng and Norenburg, Jon L. 2012. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea. BMC Genomics, 13(1): 139 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-139

Jörger, Katharina,M., Norenburg, Jon L., Wilson, Nerida G. and Schrödl, Michael 2012. Barcoding against a paradox? Combined molecular species delineations reveal multiple cryptic lineages in elusive meiofaunal sea slugs. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12: 245 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-245

Appeltans, Ward, Ahyong, Shane T, Anderson, Gary, Angel, Martin V, Artois, Tom, Bailly, Nicolas, Bamber, Roger, Barber, Anthony, Bartsch, Ilse, Berta, Annalisa, Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena, Bock, Phil, Boxshall, Geoff, Boyko, Christopher B, Brandão, Simone Nunes, Bray, Rod A, Bruce, Niel L, Cairns, Stephen D., Chan, Tin-Yam, Cheng, Lanna, Collins, Allen G, Cribb, Thomas, Curini-Galletti, Marco, Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid, Davie, Peter J F., et al 2012. The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Current Biology, 22(23): 2189-2202. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036

Tulchinsky, Alexander Y., Norenburg, Jon L. and Turbeville, James M. 2011. Phylogeography of the marine interstitial nemertean Ototyphlonemertes parmula (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea) reveals cryptic diversity and high dispersal potential. Marine Biology, 159(3): 661-674. doi:10.1007/s00227-011-1844-y

Andrade, Sónia C. S., Norenburg, Jon L. and Solferini, Vera N. 2011. Worms without borders: genetic diversity patterns in four Brazilian Ototyphlonemertes species (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea). Marine Biology, 158(9): 2109-2124. doi:10.1007/s00227-011-1718-3

Chen, Haixia, Strand, Malin, Norenburg, Jon L., Sun, Shichun, Kajihara, Hiroshi, Chernyshev, Alexey V., Maslakova, Svetlana A. and Sundberg, Per 2010. Statistical Parsimony Networks and Species Assemblages in Cephalotrichid Nemerteans (Nemertea). PLoS ONE, 5(9): e12885 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012885

Mahon, Andrew R., Thornhill, Daniel J., Norenburg, Jon L. and Halanych, Kenneth M. 2010. DNA uncovers Antarctic nemertean biodiversity and exposes a decades-old cold case of asymmetric inventory. Polar Biology, 33(2): 193-202. doi:10.1007/s00300-009-0696-0

Norenburg, Jon L. 2009. Nemertea of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters and Biota Vol. 1, Biodiversity. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, pp.553-558.

Chen, Hai-Xia, Sundberg, Per, Norenburg, Jon L. and Sun, Shi-Chun 2009. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cephalothrix simula (Iwata) (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea). Gene, 442(1-2): 8-17. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2009.04.015

Maslakova, S. A. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2008. Revision of the smiling worms, genera Prosadenoporus Burger, 1890 and Pantinonemertes Moore and Gibson, 1981 and description of a new species Prosadenoporus floridensis sp nov (Prosorhochmidae; Hoplonemertea; Nemertea) from Florida and Belize. Journal of Natural History, 42(25-26): 1689-1727. doi:10.1080/00222930802130286

Thornhill, Daniel J., Mahon, Andrew R., Norenburg, Jon L. and Halanych, Kenneth M. 2008. Open-ocean barriers to dispersal: a test case with the Antarctic Polar Front and the ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus (Nemertea: Lineidae). Molecular ecology, 17(23): 5104-5117. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03970.x

Maslakova, S. A. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2008. Revision of the smiling worms, genus Prosorhochmus Keferstein, 1862, and description of a new species, Prosorhochmus belizeanus sp nov (Prosorhochmidae, Hoplonemertea, Nemertea) from Florida and Belize. Journal of Natural History, 42(17-20): 1219-1260. doi:10.1080/00222930801995747

Collins, Allen G., Bentlage, Bastian, Lindner, Alberto, Lindsay, Dhugal, Haddock, Steven H. D., Jarms, Gerhard, Norenburg, Jon L., Jankowski, Thomas and Cartwright, Paulyn 2008. Phylogenetics of Trachylina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) with new insights on the evolution of some problematical taxa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 1673-1685.

Dmitrieva, Natalia I., Ferraris, Joan D., Norenburg, Jon L. and Burg, Maurice B. 2006. The saltiness of the sea breaks DNA in marine invertebrates: possible implications for animal evolution. Cell Cycle, 5(12): 1320-1323. doi:10.4161/cc.5.12.2867

Santos, C., Norenburg, Jon L. and Bueno, L. S. 2006. Three new species of Carcinonemertes (Nemertea, Carcinonemertidae) from the southeastern coast of Brazil. Journal of Natural History, 40(15-16): 915-930. doi:10.1080/00222930600833842

Santos, C., Bueno, L. S. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2006. Infestation by Carcinonemertes divae (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae) in Libinia spinosa (Decapoda: Pisidae) from Sao Sebastiao Island, SP, Brazil. Journal of Natural History, 40(15-16): 999-1005. doi:10.1080/00222930600834105

Collin, Rachel, Diaz, Maria Cristina, Norenburg, Jon L., Rocha, R. M., Sanchez, Juan A., Schulz, A., Schwartz, Megan L. and Valdes, A. 2005. Photographic Identification Guide to Some Common Marine Invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panamá. Caribbean Journal of Science, 41(3): 638-707.

Maslakova, S. A., Norenburg, Jon L., Thiel, Martin and Vásquez, N. 2005. Redescription of Amphiporus nelsoni Sanchez 1973 (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Amphiporidae) with a change of its taxonomic status. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 118(3): 483-496.

Schwartz, Megan L. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2005. Three New Species of Micrura (Nemertea: Heteronemertea) and a New Type of Heteronemertean Larva From the Caribbean Sea. Caribbean Journal of Science, 41(3): 528-543.

Maslakova, S. A., Martindale, M. Q. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2004. Fundamental properties of the spiralian developmental program are displayed by the basal nemertean Carinoma tremaphoros (Palaeonemertea, Nemertea). Developmental Biology, 267: 342-360.

Maslakova, S. A., Martindale, M. Q. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2004. Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea). Evolution & Development, 6(4): 219-226.

Thollesson, M. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2003. Ribbon worm relationships: a phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea. Proceedings Royal Society London, Biological Sciences, 270: 407-415.

Ivanov, V. A., Bigatti, G., Penchaszadeh, P. E. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2002. Malacobdella arrokeana (Nemertea: Bdellonemertea), a new species of nemertean from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean entocommensal in Panopea abbreviata (Bivalvia, Heterodonta, Hiatellidae) in Argentina. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115: 359-367.

Crandall, Frank B., Norenburg, Jon L., Chernyshev, Alexei V., Maslakova, Svetlana, Schwartz, Megan and Kajihara, Hiroshi 2002. Checklist of the Nemertean Fauna of Japan and Northeastern Asia: Excerpted from NEMERTES (the Nemertean Digital Knowledge-base System) Washington, DC: Dept. of Systematic Biology. National Museum of Natural History. 44 pages.

Crandall, Frank B. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Checklist of the Nemertean Fauna of the United States Washington, DC: Department of Systematic Biology. National Museum of Natural History. 36 pages.

Maslakova, S. A. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Trochophore larva is plesiomorphic for nemerteans: evidence for prototroch in a basal nemertean Carinoma tremaphoros (Phylum Nemertea, Palaeonemertea). American Zoologist, 41(6): 289

Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Morphology and taxonomic distribution of a newly discovered feature, postero-lateral glands, in pelagic nemerteans. Hydrobiologia, 456: 133-144.

Envall, M. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Morphology and phylogenetics in mesopsammic nemerteans of the genus Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea, Ototyphlonemertidae). Hydrobiologia, 456: 145-163.

Maslakova, S. A. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Phylogenetic study of pelagic nemerteans (Pelagica, Polystilifera). Hydrobiologia, 456: 111-132.

Schwartz, M. L. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Can we infer heteronemertean phylogeny from available morphological data?. Hydrobiologia, 456: 165-174.

Norenburg, Jon L. and Stricker, S. A. 2001. Phylum Nemertea. Chapter 7. In: Atlas of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. pp.163-177.

Stricker, S. A., Smythe, T. L., Miller, L. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2001. Comparative biology of oogenesis in nemertean worms. Acta Zoologica, 82: 213-230.

Newman, L., Norenburg, Jon L., Reed, S. and Reed, Sherry A. 2000. Taxonomic and biological observations on the tiger flatworm, Maritigrella crozieri (Hyman, 1939), new combination (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Euryleptidae) from Florida waters. Journal of Natural History, 34: 799-808.

Maslakova, S. A., Martindale, M. Q. and Norenburg, Jon L. 2000. Remains of the Pilidium in Direct Developing Nemerteans?. American Zoologist, 40: 1119

Schwartz, M. L. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1999. Problems inferring coelomate protostome phylogeny from elongation factor 1 alpha sequence data. American Zoologist, 39(5): 44A

Maslakova, S. A., Malakhov, V. V. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1999. Indirect Development in the Order Hoplonemertea (Phylum Nemertea). American Zoologist, 39: 222

Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 1999. Observations on depth distribution, diversity and abundance of pelagic nemerteans from the Pacific Ocean off California and Hawaii. Deep-Sea Research, 46(1): 1201-1220.

Feller, R. J., Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 1998. Dietary immunoassay of pelagic nemerteans by use of cross-reacting polyclonal antibodies: preliminary findings. Hydrobiologia, 365: 263-269.

Norenburg, Jon L. and Roe, Pamela 1998. Reproductive biology of several species of recently collected pelagic nemerteans. Hydrobiologia, 365: 73-91.

Norenburg, Jon L. and Roe, Pamela 1998. Observations on musculature in pelagic nemerteans and on pseudostriated muscle in nemerteans. Hydrobiologia, 365: 109-120.

Norenburg, Jon L. and Maslakova, S. A. 1998. Preliminary cladistic analysis of holopelagic polystiliferan nemerteans. American Zoologist, 38: 138A

Crandall, Frank B., Norenburg, Jon L. and Gibson, R. 1998. Gonadogenesis, embryogenesis, and unusual oocyte origin in Notogaeanemertes folzae Riser, 1988 (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea). Hydrobiologia, 365: 93-107.

Rogers, A. D., Thorpe, J. P., Gibson, R. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1998. Genetic differentiation of populations of the common intertidal nemerteans Lineus ruber and Lineus viridis (Nemertea, Anopla). Hydrobiologia, 365: 1-11.

Ferraris, Joan D. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1997. Oxygen uptake during repeated exposure to temperature change: Pysiological divergence in Panamanian cognate pairs and latitudinally distant populations of decapod Crustacea. Marine Ecology, 18(2): 127-146.

Ferraris, Joan D. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1997. Volume and ion regulation during repeated exposure to temperature changne: Physiological divergence in Trans-Isthmain cognate pairs and latitudinally distant populations of decapod curstacea. Marine Ecology, 18(3): 193-209.

Richards, C. T., Norenburg, Jon L. and Crandall, F. C. 1997. Phylogenetics, slime and the genus Pantinonemertes (Nemertea). American Zoologist, 37: 198A

Norenburg, Jon L. 1996. First record of the terrestrial species Geonemertes pelaensis (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea) in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 46: 21

Norenburg, Jon L., Rogers, A. D., Bustasmante, C. and Ferraris, Joan D. 1994. Molecular phylogeny in species of the nemertean genus Lineus. American Zoologist, 34: 97A

Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 1994. Aspects of occurence and reproductive biology of two deep sea pelagic nemerteans off California. Unpublished abstract for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists, : 000

Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 1993. Pelagic nemertines of the northern Pacific revisited. American Zoologist, 33(5): 47A

Norenburg, Jon L. 1993. Riserius pugetensis gen. n., sp. n. (Nemertina: Anopla), a new mesopsammic species, and comments on phylogenetics of some anoplan characters. Hydrobiologia, 266: 203-218.

Reynolds, P. D., Morse, M. P. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1993. Ultrastructure of the heart and pericardium of a neomeniomorph aplacophoran (solenogastre) mollusc: evidence for ultrafiltration of blood. Proceedings Royal Society, London, Ser.B, 254: 147-152.

Morse, M. P. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1992. Observations on and redescription of Meiomenia arenicola Salvini-Plawen, 1985 (Mollusca: Aplacophora). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 105: 674-682.

Norenburg, Jon L., Crandall, Frank B. and White, A. 1992. New supra-littoral hoplonemertines from Florida. American Zoologist, 32: 136a

Norenburg, Jon L. and Ferraris, Joan D. 1990. Cytomorphology of the pedal aperture glands in Mya arenaria L. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1990: 1137-1144.

Norenburg, Jon L. 1988. Phylogenesis of the phylum Nemertina. American Zoologist, 28: 150A

Norenburg, Jon L. 1988. Interstitial Nemertina. In: Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. pp.287-292.

Ferraris, Joan D. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1988. Water and solute regulation in Procephalothrix spiralis Coe and Clitellio arenarius (M_ller). III. Long-term acclimation to diluted seawaters and effect of putative neuroendocrine structures. Hydrobiologia, 156: 161-173.

Norenburg, Jon L. 1988. Remarks on marine interstitial nemertines and key to the species. Hydrobiologia, 156: 87-92.

Norenburg, Jon L. and Barrett, J. M. 1987. Steedman's Polyester Wax embedment for combined light and scanning electron microscopy. Journal Electron Microscopic Technics, 6: 35-41.

Norenburg, Jon L. 1987. A new old, mesopsammic nemertine?. American Zoologist, 27: 41A

Norenburg, Jon L. 1986. Redescription of a brooding nemertine, Cyanophthalma obscura gen. n., comb. n. (Schultz, 1851), with observations on its biology and discussion of the species of Prostomatella and related taxa. Zoologica Scripta, 15: 275-293.

Norenburg, Jon L., Barrett, J. M. and Schmidt-Nielsen, B. 1985. Steedman's polyester wax as a tool in correlated LM and SEM of mammalian kidney. Proceedings Southeastern Electron Microscope Society, 8: 11

Norenburg, Jon L. 1985. Structure of the nemertine integument with consideration of its ecological and phylogenetic significance. American Zoologist, 25: 37-51.

Norenburg, Jon L. 1985. Structure of the pedal aperture glands in Mya arenaria. American Zoologist, 25: 110A

Roe, Pamela and Norenburg, Jon L. 1985. Introduction to the symposium: Comparative biology of nemertines. American Zoologist, 25: 3

Norenburg, Jon L. and Morse, M. Patricia 1983. Systematic implications of Euphysa ruthae n. sp. (Athecata, Corymorphidae) a psammophilic solitary hydroid with unusual morphogenesis. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 102(1): 1-17.

Morse, M. P. and Norenburg, Jon L. 1983. A molluscan interstitial assemblage at Fort Pierce, Florida. American Zoologist, 23: 931

Norenburg, Jon L. 1982. A Euphysa hydroid that has statocysts and forms buds with reversed polarity. American Zoologist, 22: 939

Norenburg, Jon L. 1981. Interstitial nemertines and their distribution. American Zoologist, 21: 989

Norenburg, Jon L. 1980. Comparative morphology of the nemertine integument. American Zoologist, 20: 751

[ TOP ]