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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Drawing of Pebblesnails (genus Fluminicola), western United States

Pebblesnails (genus Fluminicola), western United States.

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Robert HershlerResearch Zoologist


Hershler, Robert, Ratcliffe, Victoria, Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Lang, Brian and Hay, Claire 2014. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae) species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico. Zookeys, 429: 69-85. doi:10.3897/zookeys.429.7865

Hershler, Robert, Landye, James, Liu, Hsiu-Ping, De la Maza-Benignos, Mauricio, Ornelas, Pavel and Carson, Evan W. 2014. New species and records of Chihuahuan Desert springsnails, with a new combination for Tryonia brunei. Western North American Naturalist, 74(1): 47-65. doi:10.3398/064.074.0105

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Howard, Jeanette 2014. Springsnails: A New Conservation Focus in Western North America. Bioscience, doi:10.1093/biosci/biu100

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2014. Microsatellite primers for a western North American springsnail (Pyrgulopsis robusta): evidence for polyploidy and cross-amplification in P. bruneauensis. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 80(1): 107-110. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyt050

Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Walsh, Jessica and Hershler, Robert 2013. taxonomic clarification and phylogeography of Fluminicola coloradensis Morrison, a widely ranging western North American pebblesnail. Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist, 6: 87-110.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Bradford, Corbin 2013. Systematics of a widely distributed western North American springsnail, Pyrgulopsis micrococcus (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae), with descriptions of three new congeners. Zookeys, 330: 27-52. doi:10.3897/zookeys.330.5852

Wilke, Thomas, Haase, Martin, Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Misof, Bernhard and Ponder, Winston 2013. Pushing short DNA fragments to the limit: Phylogenetic relationships of 'hydrobioid' gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66(3): 715-736. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.10.025

Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Hershler, Robert, Lang, Brian and Davies, Justin 2013. Molecular evidence for cryptic species in a narrowly endemic western North American springsnail (Pyrgulopsis gilae). Conservation Genetics, 14(4): 917-923. doi:10.1007/s10592-013-0483-x

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the western North American pebblesnails, genus Fluminicola (Rissooidea: Lithoglyphidae), with description of a new species. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 78(4): 321-329. doi:10.1093/mollus/eys017

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Clark, William H. 2012. Comments on ''The absence of genotypic diversity in a successful parthenogenetic invader'' by Mark Dybdahl and Devin Drown. Biological Invasions, 14(8): 1643-1645. doi:10.1007/s10530-012-0184-2

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2012. A new species of springsnail (Pyrgulopsis) from the Owyhee River basin, Nevada. Western North American Naturalist, 72(1): 21-31. doi:10.3398/064.072.0103

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2012. Phylogeography of an endangered western North American springsnail. Conservation Genetics, 13(1): 299-305. doi:10.1007/s10592-011-0288-8

Liu, H. P., Hershler, Robert, Marn, J. and Worsfold, T. M. 2012. Microsatellite evidence for Tetraploidy in invasive populations of the New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 78(2): 227-230. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr055

Kroll, Oliver, Hershler, Robert, Albrecht, Christian, Terrazas, Edmundo M., Apaza, Roberto, Fuentealba, Carmen, Wolff, Christian and Wilke, Thomas 2012. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history. Ecology and Evolution, 2(7): 1517-1530. doi:10.1002/ece3.280

Kabat, Alan R., Hershler, Robert and González-Guillén, Adrian 2012. Resolution of taxonomic problems associated with the complex publication history of the seminal Torre and Bartsch monograph on Cuban Urocoptidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Zootaxa, 3362: 43-53.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2011. Comments on the paper “Is the track of the Yellowstone hotspot driven by a deep mantle plume? — Review of volcanism, faulting, and uplift in light of new data” by Kenneth Pierce and Lisa Morgan [J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 188 (2009), 1–25]. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 202(3-4): 262-263. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.01.005

Hershler, Robert, Thompson, Fred G. and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2011. A large range extension and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the monotypic North American aquatic gastropod genus Cincinnatia (Hydrobiidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77(3): 232-240. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr008

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Landye, J. Jerry 2011. Two new genera and four new species of freshwater cochliopid gastropods (Rissooidea) from northeastern Mexico. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77(1): 8-23. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyq033

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Landye, J. Jerry 2011. New species and records of springsnails (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae: Tryonia) from the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico and United States), an imperiled biodiversity hotspot. Zootaxa, 3001: 1-32.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2011. Redescription of Marstonia comalensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1906), a poorly known and possibly threatened freshwater gastropod from the Edwards Plateau region (Texas). ZooKeys, 77: 1-16.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2010. Two new, possibly threatened species of Pyrgulopsis (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from southwestern California. Zootaxa, 2343: 1-17.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Lang, Brian K. 2010. Transfer of Cochliopa texana to Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae) and description of a third congener from the lower Pecos River basin. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 76(3): 245-256. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyq002

Hershler, Robert 2010. Microsatellite evidence of invasion and rapid spread of divergent New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) clones in the Snake River basin, Idaho, USA. Biological Invasions, 12(6): 1521-1532. doi:10.1007/s10530-009-9564-7

Hershler, Robert and Jayko, Angela S. 2009. A mactrid bivalve from Pleistocene deposits of Lake Russell, Mono Basin, California. Journal of Paleontology, 83(3): 496-499. doi:10.1666/08-132.1

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2009. New species and records of Pyrgulopsis (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from the Snake River basin, southeastern Oregon: further delineation of a highly imperiled fauna. Zootaxa, 2006: 1-22.

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2009. Genetic diversity and population structure of the threatened Bliss Rapids snail (Taylorconcha serpenticola). Freshwater Biology, 54(6): 1285-1299. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02175.x

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2008. Ancient vicariance and recent dispersal of springsnails (Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis) in the Death Valley system, California-Nevada. In: Reheis, M. C., Hershler, Robert and Miller, D. M., Late Cenozoic drainage history of the southwestern Great Basin and lower Colorado River region: geologic and biologic perspectives. Denver, CO: Geological Society of America Special Paper 439, pp.91-101.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of Assimineid gastropods of the Death Valley-lower Colorado River region: relicts of a late Neogene marine incursion?. Journal of Biogeography, 35(10): 1816-1825. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01947.x

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Gustafson, Daniel L. 2008. A second species of Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae) from the Missouri River basin, with molecular evidence supporting faunal origin through Pliocene stream capture across the northern continental divide. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 74(4): 403-413. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyn028

Reheis, M. C., Hershler, Robert and Miller, D. M. 2008. Late Cenozoic drainage history of the southwestern Great Basin and lower Colorado River region: geologic and biologic perspectives Denver, CO: Geological Society of America.

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2008. Microsatellite markers for the threatened Bliss Rapids snail (Taylorconcha serpenticola) and cross-amplification in its congener, T. inspirata. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8(2): 418-420. doi:10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01977.x

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Frest, T. J. and Johannes, E. J. 2007. Extensive diversification of pebblesnails (Lithoglyphidae: Fluminicola) in the upper Sacramento River basin. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149(3): 371-422.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Lang, B. K. 2007. Genetic and morphologic variation of the Pecos assiminea, an endangered mollusk of the Rio Grande region, United States and Mexico (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea: Assimineidae). Hydrobiologia, 579(1): 317-335. doi:10.1007/s10750-006-0473-9

Hershler, Robert, Davis, C. L., Kitting, C. L. and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2007. Discovery of introduced and cryptogenic cochliopid gastropods in the San Francisco Estuary, California. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 73(4): 323-332. doi:10.1093/mollus/eym028

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2007. A test of the vicariance hypothesis of western North American freshwater biogeography. Journal of Biogeography, 34(3): 534-548. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01611.x

Hershler, Robert, Liu, P. and Sada, D. W. 2007. Origin and diversification of the Soldier Meadow springsnails (Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis), a species flock in the northwestern Great Basin, United States. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 73(2): 167-183. doi:10.1093/mollus/eym014

Hershler, Robert, Liu, P., Frest, T. J., Johannes, E. J. and Clark, W. H. 2006. Genetic structure of the western North American aquatic gastropod genus Taylorconcha and description of a second species. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 72(2): 167-177. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyi066

Hershler, Robert, Mulvey, M. and Liu, P. 2005. Genetic variation in the Desert Springsnail (Tryonia porrecta): implications for reproductive mode and dispersal. Molecular Ecology, 14: 1755-1765.

Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Hershler, Robert 2005. Molecular systematics and radiation of western North American nymphophiline gastropods. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34(2): 284-298.

Lydeard, Charles, Cowie, Robert H., Bogan, A. E., Bouchet, Philippe, Cummings, K. S., Frest, T. J., Herbert, D. G., Hershler, Robert, Gargominy, O., Perez, K., Ponder, W. F., Roth, B., Seddon, M., Strong, Ellen E. and Thompson, F. G. 2004. The Global Decline of Nonmarine Mollusks. Bioscience, 54: 321-330.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 2004. A molecular phylogeny of aquatic gastropods provides a new perspective on biogeographic history of the Snake River region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32: 927-937.

Hershler, Robert and Liu, P. 2004. Taxonomic reappraisal of species assisgned to the North American freshwater gastropod subgenus Natricola (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae). The Veliger, 47(1): 66-81.

Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Hershler, Robert and Clift, K. 2003. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal extensive cryptic diversity within a western American springsnail. Molecular Ecology, 12: 2771-2782.

Hershler, Robert, Frest, T. J., Liu, P. and Johannes, E. J. 2003. Rissooidean snails from the Pit River basin, California. The Veliger, 46(4): 275-304.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, P. and Thompson, F. G. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of North American nymphophiline gastropods based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Zoologica Scripta, 32: 357-366.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Landye, J. J. 2002. A new species of Eremopyprgus (Hydrobiidae: Cochliopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, Mexico: Phylogentic relationships and biogeography. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 68: 7-13.

Thompson, F. G. and Hershler, Robert 2002. Tepalcatia, a new genus of hydrobiid snails (Prosobranchia: Rissooidea) from the Rio Balsas basin, central Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115(1): 189-204.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Stockwell, C. A. 2002. A new genus and species of aquatic gastropods (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) from the North American southwest: phylogenetic relationships and biogeography. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115: 171-188.

Hershler, Robert, Madsen, D. B. and Currey, D. R. 2002. Great Basin Aquatic Systems History. Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, 33: 1-405. doi:10.5479/si.00810274.33.1

Thompson, F. G. and Hershler, Robert 2002. Two genera of North American freshwater snails: Marstonia Baker, 1926, resurrected to generic status, and Flordobia, new Genus (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae: Nymphophillinae). The Veliger, 45(3): 269-271.

Hershler, Robert 2001. Systematics of the North and Central American aquatic snail genus Tryonia (Rissooidea : Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 612: 1-53. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.612

Hershler, Robert and Gustafson, D. L. 2001. First record for springsnails (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis) from the northern Rocky Mountains. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 114(1): 297-308.

Liu, Hsiu-Ping, Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cochliopinae (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae): an enigmatic group of aquatic gastropods. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 21(1): 17-25.

Hershler, Robert and Sada, D. W. 2000. A new species of hydrobiid snail of the genus Pyrgulopsis from northwestern Nevada. The Veliger, 43(4): 367-375.

Hershler, Robert, Liu, Hsiu-Ping and Mulvey, M. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within the aquatic snail genus Tryonia: implications for biogeography of the North American Southwest. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 13: 377-391.

Hershler, Robert, Mulvey, M. and Liu, Hsiu-Ping 1999. Biogeography in the Death Valley region: evidence from springsnails (Hydrobiidae: Tryonia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 126: 335-354.

Hershler, Robert 1999. A systematic review of the hydrobiid snails (Gastropoda: Rissoidea) of the Great Basin, western United States. Part II. Genera Colligyrus, Fluminicola, Pristinicola, and Tryonia. The Veliger, 42(4): 306-337.

Hershler, Robert and Ponder, W. F. 1998. A review of morphological characters of hydrobioid snails. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 600: 1-55. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.600

Hershler, Robert 1998. A systematic review of the hydrobiid snails (Gastropoda: Rissoidea) of the Great Basin, western United States. Part I. Genus Pyrgulopsis. The Veliger, 41(1): 1-132.

Hershler, Robert 1996. Review of the North American aquatic snail genus Probythinella (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae). Invertebrate Biology, 115(2): 120-144.

Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 1996. Redescription of Paludina integra Say, 1821, type species of Genus Cincinnatia (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 62: 33-55.

Hershler, Robert and Frest, T. J. 1996. A review of the North American freshwater snail Genus Fluminicola (Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 583: 1-41. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.583

Hershler, Robert 1995. New freshwater snails of the genus Pyrgulopsis (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) from California. Veliger, 38(4): 343-373.

Hershler, Robert, Frest, T. J., Johannes, E. J., Bowler, P. A. and Thompson, F. G. 1994. Two New Genera of Hydrobiid Snails (Prosobranchia: Rissooidea) from the Northwestern United States. Veliger, 37: 221-243.

Hershler, Robert 1994. A review of the North American freshwater snail genus Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 554: 1-115. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.554

Hershler, Robert and Velkovrh, F. 1993. A New Genus of Hydrobiid Snails (Prosobranchia: Rissooidea) from Northern South America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 106: 182-189.

Kabat, Alan R. and Hershler, Robert 1993. The Prosobranch Snail Family Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): Review of Classification and Supraspecific Taxa. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 547: 1-94. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.547

Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 1992. A Review of the Aquatic Gastropod Subfamily Cochliopinae (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae). Malacological Review, Supplement, 5: 1-140.

Thompson, F. G. and Hershler, Robert 1991. New Hydrobiid Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Truncatelloidea) from North America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 104: 669-683.

Thompson, F. G. and Hershler, Robert 1991. Two New Hydrobiid Snails (Amnicolinae) from Florida and Georgia, with a Discussion of the Biogeography of Freshwater Gastropods of South Georgia Streams. Malacological Review, 24: 55-72.

Hershler, Robert 1990. Pyrgulopsis bruneauensis, a New Springsnail (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from the Snake River Plain, Southern Idaho. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103: 803-814.

Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 1990. Antrorbis breweri, a new Genus and Species of hydrobiid cave snail from Coosa River Basin, Northeastern Alabama. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103: 197-204.

Hershler, Robert, Holsinger, John R. and Hubricht, L. 1990. A Revision of the North American Freshwater Snail Genus Fontigens (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 509: 1-49. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.509

Hershler, Robert and Holsinger, John R. 1990. Zoogeography of North American Hydrobiid Cavesnails. Stygologia, 5: 5-16.

Hershler, Robert, Pierson, J. M. and Krotzer, R. S. 1990. Rediscovery of Tulotoma magnifica (Conrad)(Gastropoda: Viviparidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103: 815-824.

Hershler, Robert and Pratt, W. L. 1990. A New Pyrgulopsis (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from Southeastern California, with a Model for Historical Development of the Death Valley Hydrographic System. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103: 279-299.

Hershler, Robert 1989. Springsnails (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) of Owens and Amargosa River (Exclusive of Ash Meadows) Drainages, Death Valley System, California-Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 102: 176-248.

Hershler, Robert 1989. Holsingeria unthanksensis, a new genus and species of aquatic cavesnail from eastern North America. Malacological Review, 22: 93-100.

Ponder, W. F., Hershler, Robert and Jenkins, B. J. 1989. An Endemic Radiation of Hydrobiid Snails from Artesian Springs in Northern South Australia: Their Taxonomy, Physiology, Distribution and Anatomy. Malacologia, 31: 1-140.

Hershler, Robert and Hubricht, L. 1988. Notes on Antroselates Hubricht, 1963 and Antrobia Hubricht, 1971 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 101: 730-740.

Hershler, Robert and Landye, J. 1988. Arizona Hydrobiidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 459: 1-63. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.459

Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 1988. Notes on Morphology of Amnicola limosa (Say, 1817)(Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) with Comments on Status of the Subfamily Amnicolinae. Malacological Review, 22: 81-92.

Hershler, Robert 1988. Holsingeria unthanksensis, a New Genus and Species of Aquatic Cavesnail from Eastern North America. Malacological Review, 22: 93-100.

Hershler, Robert and Hayek, Lee-Ann C. 1988. Shell variation of springsnail populations in the Cuatro Ciénegas basin, Mexico: preliminary analysis of limnocrene fauna. The Nautilus, 102: 56-64.

Hershler, Robert and Sada, D. 1987. Springsnails (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) of Ash Meadows, Amargosa Basin, California-Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 100: 776-843.

Hershler, Robert and Longley, G. 1987. Phreatoceras, a New Name for Hadoceras Hershler and Longley, 1986 (Gastropoda) non Strand, 1934 (Cephalopoda). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 100: 402

Hershler, Robert and Longley, G. 1987. Phreatodrobia coronae, a New Species of Cavesnail from Southwestern Texas. The Nautilus, 101: 133-139.

Hershler, Robert 1987. Redescription of Assiminea infima Berry, 1947 from Death Valley, California. Veliger, 29: 274-288.

Hershler, Robert and Thompson, F. G. 1987. North American Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea): Redescription and Systematic Relationships of Tryonia Stimpson, 1865 and Pyrgulopsis Call and Pilsbry, 1886. The Nautilus, 101: 25-32.

Hershler, Robert and Minckley, W. L. 1986. Microgeographic Variation in the Banded Spring Snail (Hydrobiidae: Mexipyrgus) from the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Coahuila, Mexico. Malacologia, 27: 357-374.

Hershler, Robert and Longley, G. 1986. Phreatic Hydrobiids (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) from the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) Aquifer Region, South-Central Texas. Malacologia, 27: 127-172.

Hershler, Robert and Longley, G. 1986. Hadoceras taylori, a New Genus and Species of Phreatic Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea) from South-central Texas. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 99: 121-136.

Hershler, Robert 1985. Systematic Revision of the Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea) of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Coahuila, Mexico. Malacologia, 26: 31-123.

Hershler, Robert 1984. Hydrobiid Snails of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico: Systematic Relationships and Ecology of a Unique Fauna. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 19: 61-76.

Hershler, Robert and Davis, G. M. 1980. The Morphology of Hydrobia truncata: Relevance to Systematics of Hydrobia. Biological Bulletin, 158: 195-219.

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