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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Image of "stalked jellyfish"

This "stalked jellyfish" lives on marine algae off the coast of California and represents a new species of Stauromedusae, Haliclystus californiensis Kahn et al., 2010 (Holotype USNM 1106657; Paratypes USNM 1139484, 1139485, 1106654).

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Allen G. Collins Zoologist, NMFS, NOAA
National Systematics Lab


Rocha, L. A., Aleixo, A., Allen, G., Almeda, F., Baldwin, C. C., Barclay, M. V. L., Bates, J. M., Bauer, A. M., Benzoni, F., Berns, C. M., Berumen, M. L., Blackburn, D. C., Blum, S., Bolanos, F., Bowie, R. C. K., Britz, R., Brown, R. M., Cadena, C. D., Carpenter, K., Ceriaco, L. M., Chakrabarty, P., Chaves, G., Choat, J. H., Clements, K. D., Collette, B. B., et al 2014. Specimen collection: An essential tool. Science, 344(6186): 814-815. doi:10.1126/science.344.6186.814

Bracken-Grissom, Heather, Collins, Allen G., Collins, Timothy, Crandall, Keith, Distel, Daniel, Dunn, Casey, Giribet, Gonzalo, Haddock, Steven, Knowlton, Nancy, Martindale, Mark, Medina, Monica, Messing, Charles, O'Brien, Stephen J., Paulay, Gustav, Putnam, Nicolas, Ravasi, Timothy, Rouse, Greg W., Ryan, Joseph F., Schulze, Anja, Worheide, Gert, Adamska, Maja, Bailly, Xavier, Breinholt, Jesse, Browne, William E., Diaz, M. Christina, et al 2014. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes. Journal of Heredity, 105(1): 1-18. doi:10.1093/jhered/est084

Grossmann, Mary M., Collins, Allen G. and Lindsay, Dhugal J. 2014. Description of the eudoxid stages of Lensia havock and Lensia leloupi (Cnidaria: Siphonophora: Calycophorae), with a review of all known Lensia eudoxid bracts. Systematics and Biodiversity, 12(2): 163-180. doi:10.1080/14772000.2014.902867

Diaz, Maria C., Thacker, Robert W., Redmond, Niamh E., Matterson, Kenan O. and Collins, Allen G. 2013. Phylogenetic Novelties and Geographic Anomalies among Tropical Verongida. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(3): 482-494. doi:10.1093/icb/ict033

Klautau, Michelle, Azevedo, Fernanda, Cóndor-Luján, Báslavi, Rapp, Hans Tore, Collins, Allen G. and Russo, Claudia A. 2013. A molecular phylogeny for the order Clathrinida rekindles and refines Haeckel's taxonomic proposal for calcareous sponges. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(3): 447-461. doi:10.1093/icb/ict039

Lewis, Cheryl, Bentlage, Bastian, Yanagihara, Angel, Gillan, William, Blerk, Johan Van, Keil, Daniel P., Bely, Alexandra E. and Collins, Allen G. 2013. Redescription of Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Zootaxa, 3737(4): 473-487. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3737.4.8

Hill, Malcolm S., Hill, April L., Lopez, Jose, Peterson, Kevin J., Pomponi, Shirley, Diaz, Maria C., Thacker, Robert W., Adamska, Maja, Boury-Esnault, Nicole, Cárdenas, Paco, Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia, Danka, Elizabeth, De Laine, Bre-Onna, Formica, Dawn, Hajdu, Eduardo, Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele, Klontz, Sarah, Morrow, Christine C., Patel, Jignasa, Picton, Bernard, Pisani, Davide, Pohlmann, Deborah, Redmond, Niamh E., Reed, John, Richey, Stacy, et al 2013. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes. Plos One, 8(1): e50437 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050437

Kayal, Ehsan, Roure, Béatrice, Philippe, Hervé, Collins, Allen G. and Lavrov, Dennis V. 2013. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13: 5 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-5

Redmond, Niamh E., Morrow, Christine C., Thacker, Robert W., Diaz, Maria C., Boury-Esnault, N., Cárdenas, P., Hajdu, E., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Picton, B. E., Pomponi, S. A., Kayal, E. and Collins, Allen G. 2013. Phylogeny and Systematics of Demospongiae in Light of New Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA (18S) Sequences. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(3): 388-415. doi:10.1093/icb/ict078

Hajdu, Eduardo, de Paula, Thiago S., Redmond, Niamh E., Cosme, Bruno, Collins, Allen G. and Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele 2013. Mycalina: Another Crack in the Poecilosclerida Framework. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53(3): 462-472. doi:10.1093/icb/ict074

Nawrocki, Annalise M., Collins, Allen G., Hirano, Yayoi M., Schuchert, Peter and Cartwright, Paulyn 2013. Phylogenetic placement of Hydra and relationships within Aplanulata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67(1): 60-71. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.12.016

Marques, Antonio C., Maronna, Maximiliano M. and Collins, Allen G. 2013. Putting GenBank Data on the Map. Science, 341(6152): 1341 doi:10.1126/science.341.6152.1341-a

Thacker, Robert W., Hill, April L., Hill, Malcom S., Redmond, Niamh E., Collins, Allen G., Morrow, Christine C., Spicer, Lori, Carmack, Cheryl A., Zappe, Megan E., Pohlmann, Deborah, Hall, Chelsea, Diaz, Maria C. and Bangalore, PurushothamV 2013. Nearly Complete 28S rRNA Gene Sequences Confirm New Hypotheses of Sponge Evolution. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(3): 373-387. doi:10.1093/icb/ict071

Morrow, Christine C., Redmond, Niamh E., Picton, Bernard E., Thacker, Robert W., Collins, Allen G., Maggs, Christine A., Sigwart, Julia D. and Allcock, A. Louise 2013. Molecular Phylogenies Support Homoplasy of Multiple Morphological Characters Used in the Taxonomy of Heteroscleromorpha (Porifera: Demospongiae). Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(3): 428-446. doi:10.1093/icb/ict065

Harrison, Genelle F., Kim, Kiho and Collins, Allen G. 2013. Low genetic diversity of the putatively introduced, brackish water hydrozoan, Blackfordia virginica (Leptothecata: Blackfordiidae), throughout the United States, with a new record for Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 126(2): 91-102. doi:10.2988/0006-324X-126.2.91

Kayal, Ehsan, Bentlage, Bastian, Collins, Allen G., Kayal, Mohsen, Pirro, Stacy and Lavrov, Dennis V. 2012. Evolution of Linear Mitochondrial Genomes in Medusozoan Cnidarians. Genome Biology and Evolution, 4(1): 1-12. doi:10.1093/gbe/evr123

Dohrmann, Martin, Vargas, Sergio, Janussen, Dorte, Collins, Allen G. and Wörheide, Gert 2012. Molecular paleobiology of early-branching animals: integrating DNA and fossils elucidates the evolutionary history of hexactinellid sponges. Paleobiology, 39(1): 95-108. doi:10.1666/0094-8373-39.1.95

Weigt, Lee A., Driskell, Amy C., Ormos, Andrea, Meyer, Christopher P. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2012. Introduction to animal DNA barcoding protocols. In: DNA Barcodes: Methods and Protocols.(Methods in molecular biology) pp.11-16.

Lewis, Cheryl, Migita, Masao, Hashimoto, Hiroshi and Collins, Allen G. 2012. On the occurrence of freshwater jellyfish in Japan 1928–2011: eighty-three years of records of mamizu kurage (Limnomedusae, Olindiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 125(2): 165-179. doi:10.2988/11-31.1

Smith, David R., Kayal, Ehsan, Yanagihara, Angel A., Collins, Allen G., Pirro, Stacy and Keeling, Patrick J. 2012. First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented Linear Architecture and Insights into Telomere Evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution, 4(1): 52-58. doi:10.1093/gbe/evr127

Appeltans, Ward, Ahyong, Shane T, Anderson, Gary, Angel, Martin V, Artois, Tom, Bailly, Nicolas, Bamber, Roger, Barber, Anthony, Bartsch, Ilse, Berta, Annalisa, Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena, Bock, Phil, Boxshall, Geoff, Boyko, Christopher B, Brandão, Simone Nunes, Bray, Rod A, Bruce, Niel L, Cairns, Stephen D, Chan, Tin-Yam, Cheng, Lanna, Collins, Allen G, Cribb, Thomas, Curini-Galletti, Marco, Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid, Davie, Peter J F., et al 2012. The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Current Biology, 22(23): 2189-2202. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036

Collins, Allen G., Bentlage, Bastian, Gillan, William (Bud), Lynn, Tara H., Morandini, Andre C. and Marques, Antonio C. 2011. Naming the Bonaire banded box jelly, Tamoya ohboya, n. sp. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Carybdeida: Tamoyidae). Zootaxa, 2753: 53-68.

Orellana, Evan R. and Collins, Allen G. 2011. First report of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora (Cubozoa: Tripedaliidae) in the continental USA, from Lake Wyman, Boca Raton, Florida. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4: e54 doi:10.1017/S1755267211000133

Bentlage, Bastian, Cartwright, Paulyn, Yanagihara, Angel A., Lewis, Cheryl, Richards, Gemma S. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2010. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) B, 277(1680): 493-501. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1707

Bayha, Keith M., Dawson, Michael N., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Barbeitos, Marcos S. and Haddock, Steven H. D. 2010. Evolutionary Relationships Among Scyphozoan Jellyfish Families Based on Complete Taxon Sampling and Phylogenetic Analyses of 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50(3): 436-455. doi:10.1093/icb/icq074

Kahn, Amanda S., Matsumoto, George I., Hirano, Yayoi M. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2010. Haliclystus californiensis, a "new" species of stauromedusa (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) from the northeast Pacific, with a key to the species of Haliclystus. Zootaxa, 2518: 49-59.

Miranda, Lucilia S., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Marques, Antonio C. 2010. Molecules Clarify a Cnidarian Life Cycle - The "Hydrozoan'' Microhydrula limopsicola Is an Early Life Stage of the Staurozoan Haliclystus antarcticus. Plos One, 5(4): e10182 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010182

Dohrmann, M., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Woerheide, G. 2009. New insights into the phylogeny of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida): Monophyly of Lyssacinosida and Euplectellinae, and the phylogenetic position of Euretidae. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 52: 257-262.

Kilvington, C. C., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Kosevich, I. A., Pyataeva, S. V. and Robson, E. A. 2008. Protohydra leuckarti near Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 1555-1557.

Cartwright, Paulyn, Evans, Nathaniel M., Dunn, Casey W., Marques, Antonio C., Miglietta, Maria Pia, Schuchert, Peter and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2008. Phylogenetics of Hydroidolina (Hydrozoa: Cnidaria). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 1663-1672.

Collins, Allen G., Bentlage, Bastian, Lindner, Alberto, Lindsay, Dhugal, Haddock, Steven H. D., Jarms, Gerhard, Norenburg, Jon L., Jankowski, Thomas and Cartwright, Paulyn 2008. Phylogenetics of Trachylina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) with new insights on the evolution of some problematical taxa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 1673-1685.

Fukami, Hironobu, Chen, Chaolun Allen, Budd, Ann F., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Wallace, Carden, Chuang, Yao-Yang, Chen, Chienhsun, Dai, Chang-Feng, Iwao, Kenji, Sheppard, Charles and Knowlton, Nancy 2008. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes Suggest that Stony Corals Are Monophyletic but Most Families of Stony Corals Are Not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria). PLoS ONE, 3(9): e3222 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003222

Tabachnick, K. R. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2008. Glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Marine Biology Research, 4: 25-47.

Evans, N. M., Lindner, A., Raikova, E. V., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Cartwright, Paulyn 2008. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8: 139

Jankowski, T., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Campbell, R. 2008. Global diversity of inland water cnidarians. Hydrobiologia, 595: 35-40.

Lewis, Cheryl, Kubota, Shin, Migotto, Alvaro E. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2008. Sexually Dimorphic Cubomedusa Carybdea sivickisi (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) in Seto, Wakayama, Japan. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 40(5/6): 1-8.

Dohrmann, Martin, Janussen, Dorte, Reitner, Joachim, Collins, Allen Gilbert and Wörheide, Gert 2008. Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Systematic Biology, 57(3): 388-405. doi:10.1080/10635150802161088

Cartwright, Paulyn, Halgedahl, Susan L., Hendricks, Jonathan R., Jarrard, Richard D., Marques, Antonio C., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Lieberman, Bruce S. 2007. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian. PLoS ONE, 2(10): e1121

Cartwright, Paulyn and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2007. Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47(5): 744-751. doi:10.1093/icb/icm071

Daly, M., Brugler, M. R., Cartwright, Paulyn, Collins, Allen Gilbert, Dawson, M. N., Fautin, D. G., France, S. C., McFadden, C. S., Opresko, Dennis M., Rodriguez, E., Roman, S. L. and Stake, J. L. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa, 1668: 127-182.

van Iten, H., Moraes Leme, J. De, Simoes, M. G., Marques, A. C. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2006. Reassessment of the phylogenetic position of conulariids (?Ediacaran-Triassic) within the subphylum Medusozoa (phylum Cnidaria). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(2): 109-118. doi:10.1017/S1477201905001793

Collins, Allen G., Bentlage, Bastian, Matsumoto, G. I., Haddock, H. D., Osborn, K. and Schierwater, B. 2006. Solution to the phylogenetic enigma of Tetraplatia, a worm-shaped cnidarian. Biology Letters, 2: 120-124.

Lutz, Richard A., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Annis, Eric R., Reed, Andrew J., Bennett, Kyle F., Halanych, Kenneth M. and Vrijenhoek, Robert C. 2006. Stauromedusan populations inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the southern East Pacific Rise. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 47: 409-414.

Medina, M., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Takaoka, T. L., Kuehl, J. V. and Boore, J. L. 2006. Naked Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103: 9096-9100.

Collins, Allen G., Schuchert, P., Marques, A. C., Jankowski, T., Medina, M. and Schierwater, B. 2006. Medusozoan Phylogeny and Character Evolution Clarified by New Large and Small Subunit rDNA Data and an Assessment of the Utility of Phylogenetic Mixture Models. Systematic Biology, 55(1): 97-115. doi:10.1080/10635150500433615

Collins, J. A. and Collins, Allen Gilbert 2005. Systematics as a Hypothesis-Based Science and its Fundamental Role in Understanding Oceans. In: OCEANS, 2005. Proceedings of MTS/IEEE. pp.1395-1402.

Tomassetti, P., Voigt, O., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Porrello, S., Pearse, V. B. and Schierwater, B. 2005. Placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens Schulze, 1883) in the Mediterranean Sea. Meiofauna Marina, 14: 5-7.

Collins, Allen G., Winkelmann, S., Hadrys, H. and Schierwater, B. 2005. Phylogeny of Capitata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) and Corynidae in light of mitochondrial 16S rDNA data. Zoologica Scripta, 34: 91-99.

Collins, Allen G. and Daly, M. 2005. A new deepwater species of Stauromedusae, Lucernaria janetae (Cnidaria, Staurozoa, Lucernariidae), and a preliminary investigation of stauromedusan phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA data. Biological Bulletin, 208: 221-230.

Collins, Allen G., Cartwright, Paulyn, McFadden, C. S. and Schierwater, B. 2005. Phylogenetic context and basal metazoan model systems. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45: 585-594.

Waggoner, Ben and Collins, Allen G. 2004. Reductio ad absurdum: Testing the evolutionary relationships of Ediacaran and Paleozoic problematic fossils using molecular divergence dates. Journal of Paleontology, 78(1): 51-61.

Voigt, O., Collins, Allen Gilbert, Pearse, V. B., Pearse, J. S., Hadrys, H. and Schierwater, B. 2004. Placozoa no longer a phylum of one. Current Biology, 14: R944-R945.

Silberman, Jeffrey D., Collins, Allen G., Gershwin, Lisa-ann, Johnson, Patricia J. and Roger, Andrew J. 2004. Ellobiopsids of the Genus Thalassomyces are Alveolates. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 51(2): 246-252.

Marques, Antonio C. and Collins, Allen G. 2004. Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology, 123(1): 23-42.

Roy, Kaustuv, Collins, Allen G., Becker, Bonnie J., Begovic, Emina and Engle, John M. 2003. Anthropogenic impacts and historical decline in body size of rocky intertidal gastropods in southern California. Ecology Letters, 6: 205-211.

Winkel, Kenneth D., Hawdon, Gabrielle M., Fenner, Peter J., Gershwin, Lisa-Ann, Collins, Allen G. and Tibballs, James 2003. Jellyfish antivenom: Past, Present and Future. Toxin Reviews, 22(1): 115-127.

Medina, Monica, Collins, Allen G., Taylor, John W., Valentine, James W., Lipps, Jere H., Amaral-Zettler, Linda and Sogin, Mitchell L. 2003. Phylogeny of Opisthokonta and the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in Fungi and Metazoa. Intenrational Journal of Astrobiology, 2(3): 203-211.

Castilla, J. C., Collins, A. G., Meyer, C. P., Guinez, R. and Lindberg, D. R. 2002. Recent introduction of the dominant tunicate, Pyura praeputialis (Urochordata, Pyuridae) to Antofagasta, Chile. Molecular Ecology, 11: 1579-1584.

Gershwin, Lisa-Ann and Collins, Allen G. 2002. A preliminary phylogeny of Pelagiidae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) , with new observations of Chrysaora colorata comb. nov.. Journal of Natural History, 36(2): 127-148. doi:10.1080/00222930010003819

Medina, Monica, Collins, Allen G., Silberman, Jeffrey D. and Sogin, Mitchell L. 2001. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(17): 9707-9712.

Collins, Allen G. and Valentine, J. W. 2001. Defining phyla: evolutionary pathways to metazoan body plans. Evolution & Development, 3(6): 432-442.

Hamilton, H., Caballero, S., Collins, Allen Gilbert and Brownell, Robert L., Jr. 2001. Evolution of river dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) B, 268(1466): 549-556.

Collins, Allen G., Lipps, J. H. and Valentine, J. W. 2000. Modern mucociliary creeping trails and the bodyplans of Neoproterozoic trace-makers. Paleobiology, 26(1): 47-55.

Collins, Allen G. 2000. Towards understanding the phylogenetic history of Hydrozoa: hypothesis testing with 18S gene sequence data. Scientia Marina, 64(1): 5-22.

Valentine, James W. and Collins, Allen G. 2000. The significance of moulting in Ecdysozoan evolution. Evolution & Development, 2(3): 152-156.

Collins, Allen G. 1999. Molecules and evolutionary history. In: Springer, Dale A. and Scotchmoor, Judith G., Evolution : investigating the evidence. [Pittsburgh, PA]: Paleontological Society,(Paleontological Society Papers) pp.

Collins, Allen G. 1998. Evaluating multiple alternative hypotheses for the origin of Bilateria: an analysis of 18S rRNA molecular evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(26): 15458-15463.

Valentine, James W., Collins, Allen G. and Meyer, C. P. 1994. Morphological complexity increase in metazoans. Paleobiology, 20(2): 131-142.

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