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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology

photo of the deepsea coral Javania pseudoalabastra

A photo of the deepsea coral Javania pseudoalabastra Zibrowius, 1974, from the Bahamas, USNM 46611

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Stephen D. CairnsResearch Zoologist


Qurban, Mohammad A., Krishnakumar, P. K., Joydas, T. V., Manikandan, K. P., Ashraf, T. T. M., Quadri, S. I., Wafar, M., Qasem, Ali and Cairns, Stephen D. 2014. In-situ observation of deep water corals in the northern Red Sea waters of Saudi Arabia. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 89: 35-43. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.04.002

Bax, N. N. and Cairns, S. D. 2014. Stylasteridae (Cnidaria; Hydrozoa). In: DeBroyer, C., Koubbi, P., Griffisths, H. J. and Raymond, B., Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Cambridge: SCAR, pp.107-112.

Tracey, D., Mackay, E., Cairns, Stephen D., Optesko, D., Alderslade, P., Sanchez, J. and Williams, G. 2014. Coral Identification Guide, 2nd ed Wellington: Department of Conservation. 16 pages.

Roberts, J. M. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2014. Cold-water corals in a changing ocean. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 7: 118-126. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.01.004

Taylor, M. L., Cairns, Stephen D., Agnew, D. J. and Rogers, A. D. 2013. A revision of the genus Thouarella Gray, 1870 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae), including an illustrated dichotomous key, a new species description, and comments on Plumarella Gray, 1870 and Dasystenella Versluys, 1906. Zootaxa, 3602(1): 1-105. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3602.1

Cairns, Stephen D. and Zibrowius, Helmut 2013. Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from South Africa. Zootaxa, 3691(1): 1-57. doi:dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3691.1.1

Cairns, Stephen D. and Polonio, Virginia 2013. New records of deep-sea Scleractinia off Argentina and the Falkland Islands. Zootaxa, 3691(1): 58-86.

Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Stolarski, Jaroslaw and Miller, David J. 2012. Deltocyathiidae, an early-diverging family of Robust corals (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Zoologica Scripta, 42(2): 201-212. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00575.x

Cairns, Stephen D. 2012. New primnoid genus and species (Alcyonacea: Primnoidae) from the southwestern Atlantic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 125(2): 180-188. doi:10.2988/11-35.1

Appeltans, Ward, Ahyong, Shane T, Anderson, Gary, Angel, Martin V, Artois, Tom, Bailly, Nicolas, Bamber, Roger, Barber, Anthony, Bartsch, Ilse, Berta, Annalisa, Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena, Bock, Phil, Boxshall, Geoff, Boyko, Christopher B, Brandão, Simone Nunes, Bray, Rod A, Bruce, Niel L, Cairns, Stephen D, Chan, Tin-Yam, Cheng, Lanna, Collins, Allen G, Cribb, Thomas, Curini-Galletti, Marco, Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid, Davie, Peter J F., et al 2012. The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Current Biology, 22(23): 2189-2202. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036

Kitahara, Marcelo V., Stolarski, J., Cairns, Stephen D., Benzoni, F., Stake, J. L. and Miller, D. J. 2012. The first modern solitary Agariciidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) revealed by molecular and microstructural analysis. Invertebrate Systematics, 26(3): 303-315. doi:10.1071/IS11053

Baco, Amy R. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2012. Comparing molecular variation to morphological species designations in the deep-sea coral Narella reveals new insights into seamount coral ranges. PLoS ONE, 7(9): 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045555

Jameson, Stephen C. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2012. Neotypes for Porites porites (Pallas, 1766) and Porites divaricata LeSueur, 1820 and remarks on other western Atlantic species of Porites (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 125(2): 189-207. doi:10.2988/11-07.1

Stolarski, Jaroslaw, Kitahara, Marcelo V., Miller, David J., Cairns, Stephen D., Maciej, Mazur and Meibom, Anders 2011. The ancient evolutionary origins of Scleractinia revealed by azooxanthellate corals. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11(316): 1-10.

Janiszewska, K., Stolarski, J., Benzerara, K., Meibom, A., Mazur, M., Kitahara, Marcelo V. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2011. A unique skeletal microstructure of the deep-sea micrabaciid scleractinian corals. Journal of Morphology, 272: 191-203.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2011. A Revision of the Primnoidae (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 634: 1-55. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.634

Cairns, Stephen D. 2011. Global Diversity of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecatae). PLoS ONE, 6(7): e21670 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021670

Cairns, Stephen D. and Lindner, Alberto 2011. A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and adjacent Waters. ZooKeys, 158: 1-88. doi:10.3897/zookeys.158.1910

Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D. and Miller, D. J. 2010. Monophyletic origin of Caryophyllia (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae), with descriptions of six new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 81(1): 91-118. doi:10.1080/14772000903571088

Cairns, Stephen D. 2010. Review of Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai'i and adjacent seamounts. Part 3: Genera Thouarella, Plumarella, Callogorgia, Fanellia, and Parastenella. Pacific Science, 64(3): 413-440. doi:10.2984/64.3.413

Watson, J., deCook, S. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2010. Chapter 3: Phylum Cnidaria: Class Hydrozoa. In: deCook, S., New Zealand Coastal Marine Invertebrates, Volume 1. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, pp.177-228.

Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Stolarski, J., Blair, D. and Miller, D. J. 2010. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial CO1 sequence data. PLOS One, 5(7): 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011490

Sammarco, P. W., Porter, S. A. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2010. A new coral species introduced into the Atlantic Ocean – Tubastraea micranthus (Ehrenberg 1834) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): an invasive threat?. Aquatic Invasions, 5(2): 131-140. doi:10.3391/ai.2010.5.2.02

Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Influence of Frederick (Ted) M. Bayer on deep-water octocoral research. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397: 7-10, 18 supp..

Roberts, J. M., Wheeler, A., Freiwald, A. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Cold-Water Corals: The Biology and Geology of Deep-Sea Coral Habitats Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 334 pages.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2009. A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 629: 1-79. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.629

Reyes, Javier, Santodomingo, Nadia and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Caryophylliidae (Scleractinia) from the Colombian Caribbean. Zootaxa, 2262: 1-39.

Cairns, S.D., Gerhswin, L.A., Brook, F., Pugh, P.R., Dawson, E.W., Ocaña V, O., Vervoort, W., Williams, G., Watson, J., Opresko, D.M., Schuchert, P., Hine, P.M., Gordon, D.P., Campbell, H.J., Wright, A.J., Sanchez, J. and Fautin, D.G. 2009. Phylum Cnidaria; Corals, Medusae, Hydroids, Myxozoa. In: Gordon, D.P., New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, pp.59-101.

Kitahara, Marcelo V. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. A revision of the genus Deltocyathus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from New Caledonia, with the description of a new species. Zoosystema, 31(2): 233-248. doi:10.5252/z2009n2a2

Ofwegen, L., Breedy, Odalisca and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Octocorallia - Octocorals. In: Haussermann, V. and Forsterra, G., Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Chile: Nature in Focus, pp.177-214.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2009. Chapter 13. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity.. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press, pp.321-331.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Review of Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai’i and adjacent seamounts. Part 2. Genera Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908; Candidella Bayer, 1954; and Calyptrophora Gray, 1866. Pacific Science, 63(3): 413-448. doi:10.2984/049.063.0309

Cairns, Stephen D. and Fautin, D. G. 2009. Chapter 12. Cnidaria: Introduction. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity.. College Station, Texas.: Texas A&M Press, pp.315-319.

Cairns, Stephen D., Jaap, W. C. and Lang, J. C. 2009. Chapter 14. Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity.. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press, pp.333-346.

Calder, D. R. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. Chapter 19. Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity.. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press, pp.381-394.

Amaral, F. M. D., Steiner, A. Q., Broadhurst, M. K. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2008. An overview of the shallow-water calcified hydroids from Brazil (Hydrozoa: Cnidaria), including the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 1930: 56-68.

Gonzalez-Romero, S., Reyes-Bonilla, H. and Cairns, S.D. 2008. Range extensions of three species of the family Caryophylliidae (Scleractinia) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. JMBA2 - Biodiversity Records, .

Lindner, A., Cairns, Stephen D. and Cunningham, C. W. 2008. From offshore to onshore: multiple origins of shallow-water corals from deep-sea ancestors. Plos One, 3(6): 1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002429

Kitahara, Marcelo V. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2008. New records of the genus Crispatotrochus (Scleractinia: Caryophylliidae) from New Caledonia, with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 1940: 59-68.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2008. A review of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai'i and adjacent seamounts: the genus Narella Gray, 1870. Pacific Science, 62(1): 85-115.

Cairns, S.D. 2007. Deep-water corals: an overview with special reference to diversity and distribution of deep-water scleractinian corals. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81(3): 311-322.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2007. Calcaxonian Octocorals (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) from eastern Pacific seamounts. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 58(25): 511-541.

George, R. Y. and Cairns, Stephen D. (eds.) 2007. Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems; Biology and Geology Miami: University of Miami. (Third International Symposium on Deep Sea Corals; ) 309 pages.

George, R. Y. and Cairns, Stephen D. (eds.) 2007. Conservation and Adaptive Management of Seamount and Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems Miami: University of Miami. 323 pages.

Cairns, Stephen D., Bayer, Frederick M. and Fautin, D. G. 2007. Galatheanthemum profundale (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) in the western Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science, 80(1): 191-200.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2007. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Gorgonacea: Ellisellidae). Part 7: The genera Riisea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 and Nicella Gray, 1870. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 120(1): 1-38. doi:10.2988/0006-324X(2007)120[1:SOWAOG]2.0.CO

Viada, S. T. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2007. A new species of Nicella (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the western Atlantic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 120(2): 227-231. doi:10.2988/0006-324X(2007)120[227:ANSONA]2.0.CO

Cairns, Stephen D. 2007. Studies on western Atlantic octocorallia (Gorgonacea : Primnoidae). Part 8: New records of Primnoidae from the New England and corner rise seamounts. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 120(3): 243-263. doi:10.2988/0006-324X(2007)120[243:SOWAOG]2.0.CO

Cairns, S.D. and Baco, A. 2007. Review and five new Alaskan species of the deep-water octocoral Narella (Octocorallia: Primnoidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 5(4): 391-407. doi:10.1017/S1477200007002472

Cairns, Stephen D. 2006. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 6. The genera Primnoella Gray, 1858; Thouarella Gray, 1870; Dasystenella Versluys, 1906. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 119(2): 161-194. doi:10.2988/0006-324X(2006)119[161:SOWAOC]2.0.CO;2

Guinotte, John M., Orr, J., Cairns, Stephen D., Freiwald, A., Morgan, L. and George, R. 2006. Will human-induced changes in seawater chemistry alter the distribution of deep-sea scleractinian corals?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4(3): 141-146. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0141:WHCISC]2.0.CO;2

Cairns, S.D. 2006. New records of azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 86: 45-53.

Etnoyer, Peter J., Cairns, Stephen D., Sanchez, Juan Armando, Reed, John K., Lopez, Jose V., Schroeder, William W., Brooke, Sandra D., Watling, Les, Baco-Taylor, Amy R., Williams, Gary C., Lindner, Alberto, France, Scott C. and Bruckner, Andrew W. 2006. Deep-sea coral collection protocols: a synthesis of field experience from deep-sea coral researchers, designed to build our national capacity to document deep-sea coral diversity Silver Spring, Maryland: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. (NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR; 28) 53 pages.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2005. Revision of the Hawaiian Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecata). Pacific Science, 59(3): 439-451.

Kitahara, Marcelo V. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2005. Monohedotrochus capitolii, a new genus and species of solitary azooxanthellate coral (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from southern Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen, 79(3): 117-123.

Cairns, Stephen D., Haussermann, V. and Forsterra, G. 2005. A review of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) of Chile, with the description of two new species. Zootaxa, 1018: 15-46.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2005. A review of the genus Primnoa (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea: Primnoidae), with the description of two new species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 77(2): 225-256.

Cairns, S.D. 2004. The azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) of Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 56(3): 259-329.

Bayer, Frederick M. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2004. The Unpublished Plates for A. E. Verrill's Unfinished Report on the Alcyonaria of the "Blake" Expeditions Department of Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2004. Narella Gray, 1870 (Coelenterata, Octocorallia): proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Primnoa regularis Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 61(1): 7-10.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2004. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 5: the genera Plumarella Gray, 1870; Acanthoprimnoa, n. gen.; and Candidella Bayer, 1954. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 117(4): 447-487.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2004. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 4. The genus Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 117(1): 114-139.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2004. A new shallow-water species of Javania (Scleractinia: Flabellidae) from Indonesia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 52(1): 7-10.

Sánchez, J.A. and Cairns, S.D. 2004. An unusual new gorgonian coral (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Zoologishe Mededelingen, Leiden, 78(15): 265-274.

Lindner, Alberto, Cairns, Stephen D. and Guzman, Hector M. 2004. Distichopora Robusta Sp. Nov., the First Shallow-Water Stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) From the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 84(6): 943-947.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2003. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 3. The genus Narella Gray, 1870. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 116(3): 617-648.

Bayer, Frederick M. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2003. A new genus of the scleraxonian family Coralliidae (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 116(1): 222-228.

Cairns, S.D. 2003. A new species of Sphenotrochus (Scleractinia: Turbinoliidae) from the Late Miocene (Tortonian) of Chile. Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 345: 79-84.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2002. A new species of Chrysogorgia (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Antarctic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115(1): 217-222.

Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckmann Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Fautin, D.G., Pugh, P.R., Mills, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Arai, M.N., Haddock, S.H.D. and Opresko, D.M. 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 28: i-115.

Amaral, F. D., Broadhurst, M. K., Cairns, Stephen D. and Schlenz, E. 2002. Skeletal morphometry of Millepora occurring in Brazil, including a previously undescribed species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115: 681-695.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2002. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 2: The genus Callogorgia Gray, 1858. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115(4): 840-867.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2001. Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) Part 1: The genus Chrysogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 114(3): 746-787.

Cairns, Stephen D. 2001. Review of: Beautiful reef builders. Science, 292: 1492

Cairns, Stephen D. 2001. A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Dendrophylliidae (Cnidaria: Scleractinia). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 615: 1-75. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.615

Cairns, S.D. 2001. A brief history of taxonomic research on azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 10: 191-203.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Messing, C. G. 2001. Foreword. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 10: v-vi.

Cairns, S.D. and Messing, C.G. 2001. Commemorative volume for the 80th birthday of Frederick M. Bayer in 2001. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 10: i-364.

Cairns, S.D., Hoeksema, B.W. and der Land, J.v. 2001. Scleractinia. In: European Register of Marine Species. A checklist of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Patrimoines naturels 50. pp.109-110.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Chapman, R. E. 2001. Biogeographic affinities of the North Atlantic deep-water Scleractinia. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Ecology Action Centre and Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. pp.30-57.

Romano, S.L. and Cairns, S.D. 2000. Molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for the evolution of scleractinian corals. Bulletin of Marine Science, 67(3): 1043-1068.

Lattig, P. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2000. A new species of Tethocyathus (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia: Caryophyllidae), a trans-isthmian azooxanthellate species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 113(3): 590-595.

Cairns, S.D. 2000. A revision of the shallow-water azooxanthellate Scleractinia of the western Atlantic. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, 75: 1-240.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. Stratigraphic Distribution of Neogene Caribbean Azooxanthellae Corals (Scleractinia and Stylasteridae). In: Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama. Allen Press,(Bulletins of American Paleontology) pp.109-118.

Collins, Laurel S., Aguilera, Orangel, Borne, Pamela F. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. A Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Neogene of Caribbean Panamá and Costa Rica Using Several Phyla. In: Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama. Allen Press, pp.81

Cairns, Stephen D., Hoeksema, Bert W. and van der Land, Jacob 1999. List of extant stony corals. Atoll Research Bulletin, 459: 13-46.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. Species richness of recent Scleractinia. Atoll Research Bulletin, 459: 1-46. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.459.1

Cairns, S.D. 1999. Cnidaria Anthozoa: Deep-water azooxanthellate Scleractinia from Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 180: 31-167.

Cairns, S.D. 1998. Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) of Western Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 18(4): 361-417.

Feinstein, N. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1998. Learning from the collector: A survey of azooxanthellate corals affixed by Xenophora (Gastropoda: Xenophoridae), with an analysis and discussion of attachment patterns. The Nautilus, 112(3): 73-83.

Cairns, S.D. and Hoeksema, B.W. 1998. Distichopora vervoorti, a new shallow-water stylasterid coral (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from Bali, Indonesia. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden), 323: 311-318.

Amaral, F.D., Cairns, S.D. and Schlenz, E. 1998. Scanning electron microscopy of hydrocoral skeletons from Brazil. In: 22nd Brazilian Congress on Zoology. pp.7-8.

Cairns, S.D. and Zibrowius, H. 1997. Cnidaria Anthozoa: azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian regions. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 172: 27-243.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1997. A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Turbinoliidae (Cnidaria: Scleractinia). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 591: 1-55. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.591

Grygier, M.J. and Cairns, S.D. 1996. Suspected neoplasms in deep-sea corals (Sclerctinia: Oculinidae: Madrepora spp) reinterpreted as galls caused by Petrarca madreporae n. sp. (Crustacea: Ascothoracida: Petrarcidae). Diseases of aquatic organisms, 24(1): 61069

Cairns, Stephen D. 1995. New records of azooxanthellate stony corals (Cnidaria: Scleractinia and Stylasteridae) from the Neogene of Panamá and Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 108(3): 533-550.

Cairns, S.D. 1995. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 103: 139

Oliver, W.A.J. and Cairns, S.D. 1994. John West Wells. 1907-1994. Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, 23(1): 1-12.

Opresko, Dennis M. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1994. Description of the new genus Allopathes (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) and its type species Cirripathes desbonni. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 107(1): 185-192.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1994. Scleractinia of the temperate North Pacific. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 557: i-150. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.557.i

Keller, N.B. and Cairns, S.D. 1994. Azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the tropical southwest Indian Ocean. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Akademii Nauk SSSR, 129: 65-84.

Oliver, W. A. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1994. Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. International Association for the Study of Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, 23(1): 1-12.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Keller, N. B. 1993. New taxa and distributional records of azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from the tropical south-west Indian Ocean, with comments on their zoogeography and ecology. Annals of the South African Museum, 103(5): 213-292.

Cairns, S.D. 1993. Biology of the Antarctic Seas 22. Antarctic Research Series, 58: i-150.

Cairns, S.D., Opresko, D.M., Hopkins, T.S. and Schroeder, W.W. 1993. New records of Deep-Water Cnidaria (Scleractinia & Antipatharia) from the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science, 13(1): 1-11.

Cairns, S.D. and Grant-Mackie, J.A. 1993. Review of the fossil Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the New Zealand region. New Zealand Journal Geology and Geophyiscis, 36: 1-8.

Opresko, D.M. and Cairns, S.D. 1992. New species of black coral (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science, 12(2): 93-97.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Macintyre, Ian G. 1992. Phylogenetic implications of calcium carbonate mineralogy in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Palaios, 7: 96-107.

Cairns, S.D. 1992. Worldwide distribution of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Scientia Marina, 56(2-3): 125-130.

Zibrowius, H. and Cairns, S.D. 1992. Revision of the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie, 153: 1-136.

Cairns, S.D. and Parker, S.A. 1992. Review of the Recent Scleractinia (stony corals) of South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series, 3: 1-82.

Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 22: 1-75.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1991. Cyclohelia lamellata, new genus and species of Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Bering Sea. Pacific Science, 45(4): 383-388.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1991. New records of Stylasteridae (Hydrozoa: Hydroida) from the Galapagos and Cocos Islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 104(2): 209-228.

Cairns, S.D. 1991. A generic revision of the Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa) Part 3 Keys to the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science, 49(1-2): 538-545.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1991. A revision of the Ahermatypic Scleractinia of the Galapagos and Cocos Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 504: 1-32. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.504

Macintyre, Ian G., Rützler, Klaus, Norris, James N., Smith, K. P., Cairns, Stephen D., Bucher, K. E. and Steneck, Robert S. 1991. An early holocene reef in the Western Atlantic: submersible invesigations of a deep relict reef off the west coast of Barbados, W. I. Coral Reefs, 10: 167-174.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1991. Catalog of the type specimens of stony corals (Milleporidae, Stylasteridae, Scleractinia) in the National Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 514: 1-59. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.514

Cairns, Stephen D. and New Zealand Oceanographic Institute. 1991. The marine fauna of New Zealand : Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydroida) [Wellington]: New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research. 180 pages.

Cairns, S.D. 1990. Antarctic Scleractinia: keys and notes for the identification of the species Koeltz Scientific Books. (Synopses of the Antarctic Benthos; 1) 78 pages.

Cairns, S.D. 1990. Ordung Scleractinia. Fauna der Antarktis, : 26-29.

Cairns, S.D. 1989. Discriminant analysis of Indo-West Pacific Flabellum. Memoir Association of Australian Paleontologists, (Fifth International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria, Brisbane), 8: 61-68.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1989. A revision of the ahermatypic Scleractinia of the Philippine Islands and adjacent Waters, Part 1: Fungiacyathidae, Micrabaciidae, Turbinoliinae, Guyniidae, and Flabellidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 486: 1-136. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.486

Stanley, George D. and Cairns, S. D. 1988. Constructional Azooxanthellate Coral Communities: An Overview with Implications for the Fossil Record. Palaios, 3(2): 233-242.

Peters, E. C., Cairns, Stephen D., Pilson, M. E. Q., Wells, J. W., Jaap, W. C., Lang, J. C., Vasleski, C. E. and St Pierre Gollahon, L. 1988. Nomenclature and biology of Astrangia poculata (=A. danae, =A. astreiformis) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 101(2): 234-250.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1988. Cryptotrochus, new genus and two new species of deep-water corals (Scleractinia: Turbinoliinae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 101(4): 709-716.

Cairns, S.D. 1988. New records of Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from western Australia, including the description of two new species. Records of the Western Australia Museum, 14(1): 105-119.

Cairns, S.D. 1988. Asexual reproduction in solitary Scleractinia. Proceedings Sixth International Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, 2: 641-646.

Viada, S. T. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1988. Range Extensions of Ahermatypic Scleractinia in the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science, 9(2): 131-134.

Stanley, G. D. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1988. Constructional azooxanthellate coral communities: an overview with implications for the fossil record. Palaios, 5(3): 233-242.

Viada, S.T. and Cairns, S.D. 1987. Range extensions of ahermatypic Scleractinia in the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science, 9(2): 131-134.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Wells, J. W. 1987. Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic. 5. The suborders Caryophyllina and Dendrophyllina (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Bulletins of American Paleontology, 93: 23-43.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1987. Conopora adeta, new species (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from Australia, the first known unattached stylasterid. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 100(1): 141-146.

Cairns, S.D. 1987. Evolutionary trends in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). In: Bouillon, J., Modern Trends in the Systematics, Ecology, and Evolution of Hydroids and Hydromedudae. Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp.257-274.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1986. A revision of the Northwest Atlantic Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 418: 1-131. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.418

Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., Arenson, C. and Rützler, Klaus 1986. Scleractinia. In: Sterrer, W., Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, pp.159

Cairns, S.D., den Hartog, J.C. and Arneson, C. 1986. Anthozoa. In: Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda. pp.159-194.

Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C. and Arneson, C. 1986. Class Anthozoa. In: Sterrer, W., Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp.159-194.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1986. Stylasteridae (Hydrozoa: Hydroida) of the Galapagos Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 426: 1-42. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.426

Cairns, Stephen D. 1985. Three new species of Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 98(3): 728-739.

Cairns, S.D. 1984. Fossil and Recent reef communities: Introduction. Fourth International Symposium Fossil Cnidaria, Palaeontographica Americana, 54: 383-384.

Cairns, Stephen D. and Barnard, J. L. 1984. Redescription of Janaria mirabilis, a calcified hydroid from the eastern Pacific. Southern California Academy of Science, 83(3): 1-11.

Cairns, S.D. 1984. New records of ahermatypic corals (Scleractinia) from the Hawaiian and Line Islands. Occasional Papers Bishop Museum, 25(10): 1-30.

Cairns, S.D. 1984. A generic revision of the Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 2. Phylogenetic analysis. Bulletin of Marine Science, 35(1): 38-53.

Cairns, S.D. 1984. An application of phylogenetic analysis to the Scleractinia: Family Fungiidae. Fourth International Symposium Fossil Cnidaria, Palaeontographica Americana, 54: 49-57.

Cairns, S.D. 1983. A generic revision of the Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part l. Description of the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(2): 427-508.

Cairns, S.D. 1983. Antarctic and Subantarctic Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Antarctic Research Series, 38: 61-164.

Cairns, S.D. 1983. Biology of the Antarctic seas 13. Antarctic and subantarctic Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Antarctic Research Series, 38: 61-164.

Cairns, S.D. 1983. Pseudocrypthelia, a new genus of stylasterine coral (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa) from the Indonesian region. Beaufortia, 33(3): 29-35.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1983. Observations on species of the fossil genus Axopora (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa) and its evolutionary significance to the Stylasteridae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 96(4): 758-769.

Zibrowius, H. and Cairns, Stephen D. 1982. Remarks on the stylasterine fauna of the West Indies, with the description of Stylaster antillarum, a new species from the Lesser Antilles (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasterina). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 95(1): 210-221.

Cairns, S.D. and Stanley, G.D. 1982. Ahermatypic coral banks: living and fossil counterparts. Proceedings Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 611-618.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1982. Stony corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa, Scleractinia) of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 12: 272-302. doi:10.5479/si.01960768.12.272

Cairns, S.D. 1982. Review of: A field guide to the coral reefs of the Caribbean and Florida. Current, 4(2): 21

Cairns, S.D. 1982. Biology of the Antarctic seas 2. Antarctic and subantarctic Scleractinia. Antarctic Research Series, 34: 1-74.

Cairns, S.D. 1982. Antarctic and Subantarctic Scleractinia. Antarctic Research Series, 34: 1-74.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1982. A new subfamily of operculate stylasterine (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa) from the Subantarctic. Journal of Natural History, 16(1): 71-81.

Cairns, S.D. 1981. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States Scleractinia. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular, 438: 14

Cairns, S.D. 1979. The deep-water Scleractinia of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, 57(180): 341

Cairns, S.D. 1978. Types and figured specimens of Stylasterina and Scleractinia at the NMNH, Smithsonian. Part l. Recent and Cenozoic. Fossil Cnidaria, 7(2): 9-14.

Cairns, S.D. 1978. A checklist of the ahermatypic Scleractinia of the Gulf of Mexico, with the description of a new species. Gulf Research Reports, 6(1): 9-15.

Cairns, S.D. 1978. Distichopora (Haplomerismos) anceps, a new stylasterine coral (Coelenterata: Stylasterina) from deep water off the Hawaiian Islands. Micronesica, 14(1): 83-87.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1978. New genus and species of ahermatypic coral (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the western Atlantic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 91(1): 216-221.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1978. The Deep-water Scleractinia of the Caribbean and Adjacent Waters. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands, 57(180): 341

Cairns, Stephen D. 1977. A review of the Recent species of Balanophyllia (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of four new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 90(1): 132-148.

Cairns, S.D. 1977. Guide to the commoner shallow-water gorgonians of South Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean region. University of Miami Sea Grant Field Guide Series, 6: 74

Cairns, S.D. 1977. Stony corals. 1. Caryophylliina (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Memoirs Hourglass Cruises, 3(4): 1-27,illust.

Cairns, S.D. 1977. Caryophylliina and Dendrophylliina (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, 3(4): 27

Cairns, Stephen D. 1977. Biological results of the University of Miami Deep Sea Expeditions. ]21. A review of the recent species of Balanophyllia (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of four new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 90(1): 132-148,illust.

Cairns, S.D. 1977. A revision of the Recent species of Stephanocyathus (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 27(4): 729-739.

Cairns, Stephen D. 1977. Review of the deep-water ahermatypic corals (Scleractinia) of the tropical western Atlantic. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(7): 3292

Cairns, S.D. 1977. Deep-water corals. Sea Frontiers, 23(2): 84-89.

Cairns, S.D. 1976. Biological results of the University of Miami deep-sea expeditions. 118. Cephalopods collected in the Straits of Florida by the R/V Gerda. Bulletin of Marine Science, 26(2): 233-272.

Cairns, S.D. 1976. Cephalopods of the Straits of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 26(2): 233-272.

Cairns, S.D. and Olmsted, C.A. 1973. Effects of Holothurin on Sarcoma-l80 and B-l6 Melanoma tumors in mice. Gulf Research Reports, 4(2): 205-213.

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