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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Young R.E., M. Vecchione and D.T. Donovan

1998
The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology.
Payne, A.L., L. Lipinski, M.R. Clarke and M.A.C. Roeleveld (eds.),Cephalopod Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution. S. Afr. J.mar. Sci. 20:393-420.

ABSTRACT: The present status of phylogeny and classification in coleoid cephalopods and the effect of evolution on the present ecology and biodiversity in the group are examined. The basis of knowledge of cephalopod phylogeny was formulated by Naef in the early 1920s, and his ideas and the progress made in the intervening 75 years are investigated. In the process, the roles that transitions between pelagic and benthic habitats played in the evolution of of cephalopods are noted, and the possibility is advanced that the most recent "oceanic anoxic event" may have established a time marker for the divergence of some oegopsid families. The major advances since Naef's work are: 1. The unusual nature of Vampyroteuthis has been recognized; 2. The sister-group relationship between the Neocoleoidea and the Belemnoidea has been established, but requires further confirmation; 3. Monophyly has been confirmed for the Decapodiformes (new name), Octopodiformes and Octopoda by molecular and morphological methodologies; 4. The dates of origin of the Belemnoidea, Neocoleoidea, Sepioidea and fossil teuthoids have been extended to considerably earlier times. The major unsolved phylogenetic problems in need of immediate attention are the position of the Myopsida, relationships within the Sepioidea, the identification of basal nodes with the Oegopsida, and the relationships of most "fossil teuthoids."

Grimpoteuthis sp.Fig. 5: A cirrate octopod (Grimpoteuthis ?) shown swimming using the large fins and sitting on the substratum.
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Vitreledonella richardiFig 8a & 8b: Vitreledonellidae (Vitreledonella richardi) videotaped from submersibles. (1) Taken as the submersible approached the octopods off Hawaii- note that the video shows two octopods, one engulfed within the web of the other (courtesy C. Young, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, USA, and the University of Hawaii HURL Program).
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Vitreledonella richardiFig. 8c: Vitreledonellidae (Vitreledonella richardi) videotaped from submersibles. (2) Single individual taped in the Atlantic while moving downwards-- note the vertically oriented digestive-gland complex (spindle-shaped, bright reflection; courtesy R. Larsen, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.A., and R. Harbison, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A.)
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