Legend
  • Contains description
  • Contains photos

Classification


USNM 82189

Geographic Distribution

Antarctic Convergence illustration Antarctic convergence

Bathymetric Specimen Dispersal

251 individual specimens found for Flabellum flexuosum.

Flabellum flexuosum Cairns, 1982  Species

Synonymy

Original Description
Inactive node Show the full description

Original Description
Active node Hide the full description

"Flabellum flexuosum Cairns, 1982

Desmophyllum sp. Marenzeller, 1903, p. 1.

Desmophyllum antarcticum; Gravier, 1914b, p. 122 (part: pi. 1, fig. 4).

Gardineria lilliei; Gardiner, 1939, pp. 328, 329 (part: Discovery sta. 140, 160 (part), 181, 190).

Flabellum antarcticum; Wells, 1958, p. 269, pi. 2, figs. 11-15.—Squires, 1962b, pp. 13, 14, 19, 20; 1969, p. 18, pi. 6, map 3.—Bullivant, 1967, p. 65.—Zibrowius, 1974b, p. 18.—Not F. antarcticum; Keller, 1974, p. 203 (is F. curvatum Moseley, 1881).

Flabellum thouarsii; Wells, 1958, p. 268 (part: Discovery sta. 41, 93), pi. 2, figs. 7-10.

Flabellum ongulense Eguchi, 1965, pp. 11, 12, pi. 2, figs. 2a-2d.

Description. Corallum ceratoid, tall; straight, bent, curved, or scolecoid. Pedicel 2.7-4.5 mm in diameter, expanding slightly (up to 5.5 mm) at attachment to substrate. Coralla usually remaining attached. Holotype 20.8 x 17.7 mm in CD and 28.7 mm tall: PD at break 3.0 mm. Largest specimen (Eltanin station 1933, USNM 47172) 24.0 x 20.7 mm in CD, 4.0 mm in PD, and 67 mm tall. Theca very thin and porcelaneous, usually without encrusting organisms; however, bryozoans sometimes colonizing theca of living specimens. Calice elliptical, not compressed; ratio of GCD/LCD about 1.25. Septa hexamerally arranged in five cycles; however, tall, slender coralla and younger specimens often with less septa. S1 and S2 equal in

size and slightly exsert (because the septa are so delicate, their upper septal edges are invariably broken off when they are collected). Remaining septal cycles progressively smaller, S3 sometimes 3-4 times larger than S4; s5 rudimentary. Inner edges of all septa sinuous, corresponding to shallow, transverse undulations on septa, producing wrinkled or corrugated appearance. Fine, pointed septal granules, up to 2 times septal thickness in height, aligned on crests of septal undulations. Lower inner edges of Si and S2 usually fused,

forming rudimentary columella.

Discussion. Both Wells (1958) and Squires (1962b, 1969) identified this species as Flabellum antarcticum (Gravier, 1914). Gravierrs (1914a) species, although it is very similar to F. flexuosum, is a rarely collected Javania, which always has a thick stereome-reinforced pedicel; F. flexuosum always has a typical nonreinforced Flabellum-type pedicel. However, Gravier1s (1914b, pl. 1, fig. 4) third specimen from dredge VIII, which he doubtfully assigned to Desmophyllum antarcticum, is probably F. flexuosum.

F. flexuosum has basically the same distribution as F. impensum, the only other circum-Antarctic species of Flabellum. It can be distinguished by its more slender, often bent corallum, exsert septa, and more prominent septal granulation. The single specimen from the Weddell Sea (Edisto station 20) and Wells's (1958) specimens from off eastern Antarctica differ from typical F. flexuosum in that they are large specimens and yet have only four cycles of septa. It would be helpful to have more specimens from the eastern Antarctic for comparison.

Flabellum ongulense Eguchi, 1965, may be the same species and would therefore have nomenclatural priority. However, none of Eguchi's Antarctic specimens are available for study. F. gracile (Studer, 1978), known only from off New Zealand (95-196 m), is also very similar to F. flexuosum. Thomson and Rennet's (1931) Caryophyllia vermiformis seems to be F. gracile.

Etymology. The specific name flexuosum (Latin: full of bends, crooked) refers to the bent and often scolecoid shape of the corallum.

Material. Eltanin sta. 418 (1), USNM 47265; sta. 671 (42), USNM 47275; sta. 684 (5), USNM 45656; sta. 993 (2), USNM 53427; sta. 1535 (7), USNM 47270; sta; 1870 (3), USNM 47259; sta. 1878 (1), USNM 47261; sta. 1995 (22), USNM 47276; sta. 1996 (26), USNM 47282; sta. 1997 (10), USNM 47279; sta. 2092 (1), USNM 47268; sta. 2097 (1), USNM 47258; sta. 2119 (1), USNM 47257; sta. 2120 (1),

USNM 47256. Islas Orcadas sta. 575-8 (1), USNM 47277; sta. 575-12 (4), USNM 47283; sta. 575-13

(1), USNM 47273; sta. 575-17 (3), USNM 47267; sta. 575-30 (1), USNM 47262; sta. 575-52 (1), USNM 47273; sta. 575-90 (2), USNM 47281; sta. 575-91 (6), USNM 47271. Hero sta. 691-20 (1), USNM 47280; sta. 731-1812 (1), USNM 47266. Edisto sta. 20 (2), USNM 47272. Atka sta. 23 (12), USNM 47269. Burton Island sta. 3 (3), USNM 47264. EW sta. 6 (2), USNM 47255; sta. 28 (3), USNM 47274; sta. 35 (1), USNM 47263. At 66°40'S, 139°51fE, 220-240 m (1), SME. Specimen identified as Desmophyllum sp. by Marenzeller (1903), Brussels Museum; specimen identified as Caryophyllia vermiformis by Thomson and Rennet (1931), Australian Museum G 13535; specimens (5) identified as Gardineria lilliei by

Gardiner (1939), BM 1939.7.20.238-240, and (1), MCZ; specimens identified as F. thouarsii from

stations 41 (5) and 93 (3) (Wells, 1958), South Australian Museum H 66, H 69.

Types. The holotype, collected at Eltanin station 1536, is deposited at the United States National Museum (47170). Nine paratypes from Eltanin station 1536 (number 47171), 1 from Eltanin station 1933 (number 47172), and 21 from Islas Orcadas station 575-93 (number 47173) are deposited at the United States National Museum. Type-locality: 54°29'S, 39°22'W (west of South Georgia); 659-686 m.

Distribution. Off Antarctic Peninsula; off South Shetland Islands; off South Orkney Islands; off South Sandwich Islands; off South Georgia and Shag Rocks; Weddell Sea; off Enderby Land; Ross Sea; Bellingshausen Sea (probably circumpolar) (Map 10).

Depth range: 101-659 m." Cairns 1982, pp. 41-42, Plate 12, figs. 9-12.

Geographic Distribution

Off Antarctic Peninsula; off South Shetland Islands; off South Orkney Islands; off South Sandwich Islands; off South Georgia and Shag Rocks; Weddell Sea; off Enderby Land; Ross Sea; Bellingshausen Sea (probably circumpolar).

Depth range: 101-659 m.

Specimens

Displaying 10 of 51 Specimens

Type Status Catalog No. Date Collected Location Coordinates Depth (m) Vessel
Holotype 47170 2/8/1966 Scotia Sea 54.5° S, 39.4° W 659 – 686 Eltanin R/V
Paratype 47171 2/8/1966 Scotia Sea 54.5° S, 39.4° W 659 – 686 Eltanin R/V
Paratype 47172 1/30/1967 Ross Sea 73.4° S, 177.6° E 465 – 474 Eltanin R/V
Paratype 47173 6/9/1975 Scotia Sea 54.65° S, 38.86° W 262 – 271 Islas Orcadas R/V
  45656 8/25/1963 Scotia Sea 54.9° S, 38.1° W 595 – 677 Eltanin R/V
  47255 1/29/1966 Antarctic Ocean 64.84° S, 63.25° W 104 – 146 Eastwind R/V
  47256 2/11/1968 Ross Sea 73.1° S, 179.1° E 570 Eltanin R/V
  47257   Ross Sea 73.1° S, 180° W 507 – 554 Eltanin R/V
  47258 2/4/1968 Ross Sea 76.1° S, 165.1° W 494 – 498 Eltanin R/V
  47259 1/14/1967 Ross Sea 71.3° S, 171.6° E 659 – 741 Eltanin R/V

Displaying 10 of 51 Specimens

View additional taxa  View all species collected at same locations as Flabellum flexuosum