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Classification


USNM 47153

Geographic Distribution

Antarctic Convergence illustration Antarctic convergence

Bathymetric Specimen Dispersal

576 individual specimens found for Balanophyllia malouinensis.

Balanophyllia malouinensis Squires  Species

Synonymy

Original Description
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Original Description
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"Balanophyllia malouinensis Squires, 1961

Balanophyllia cornu; Gardiner, 1939, pp. 335, 336.

Balanophyllia malouinensis Squires, 1961, pp. 15, 39, 40, 46, figs. 5, 24-26; 1969, pp. 17, 18, pi. 6, map 2.—Sorauf and Podoff, 1977, pp. 4-6, pi. 2, figs. 5, 6, pi. 3, fig. 6, pi. 4, figs. 2-5.—Cairns, 1979, p. 206.

Description. Corallum ceratoid to subcylindrical, straight to slightly curved, usually free when adult. Basal disc diameter about 4.2 mm, narrowing slightly to PD of about 3.5 mm, then gradually expanding into ceratoid corallum. Some coralla, however, subcylindrical and remaining firmly attached by strengthening base with layers of stereome, up to 12 mm in diameter. Young coralla usually weakly attached to epitheca of same species, F. curvatum, small gastropods, bivalves, or pebbles. Largest specimen examined 23.1 x 21.2 mm in CD and 57.5 mm tall. Synapticulotheca thick, very porous, and spinose. Costal spines usually

randomly arranged, but in some specimens aligned longitudinally and separated by striae, resembling costae. Between 60 and 100% of synapticulotheca covered by thin, irregularly banded epitheca, of ten leaving only small ring of synapticulotheca visible at calicular edge. According to Sorauf and Podoff (1977), synapticulotheca gradually in filled by stereome, forming more solid 'stereotheca1’ (Plate 16, fig. 7). Septa hexamerally arranged in five cycles but only largest specimens with complete fifth cycle. S1 and S2 equal in size and extending to columella. Remaining septa arranged in Pourtalès plan: S4 smallest septa, S5 adjacent to S1 and S2 larger than S3 and extending to columella. Septa not exsert and with straight inner edges. Septal granulation variable, from very sparse (smooth septal faces) to crowded arrangement of tall, blunt granules. Columella discrete, massive, elongate structure, resting in shallow, elliptical fossa; either spongy or composed of numerous twisted ribbons, swirled in clockwise direction. Columella may be granulated.

Discussion. Contrary to Squires's (1961) original description, based on six worn specimens, this species does not have exsert septa and does some times have costae. The presence or absence of costae is the basic difference between Balanophyllia and Thecopsammia, the latter lacking costae. The variable nature of this character in B. malouinensis implies that Thecopsammia may be a junior synonym of Balanophyllia. Contrary to Wells (1956) and Squires (1961), Thecopsammia socialis (type-species of Thecopsammia) has a distinct Pourtalès plan in the adult stage (see Cairns, 1979).

Material. Eltanin sta. 339 (255), USNM 47179; sta. 340 (15), USNM 45671; sta. 346 (1), USNM 47154; sta. 369 (6), USNM 47149; sta. 558 (221), USNM 45672; sta. 740 (103), USNM 47153; sta. 970 (21), USNM 47146; sta. 977 (205), USNM 47148; sta. 1521 (6), USNM 47147; sta. 1536 (12), USNM 47178; sta. 1596 (1), USNM 47155. Hero sta. 715-895 (7), USNM 47177. Vema sta. 14-12 (5), AMNH; sta. 14-18 (1), AMNH; sta. 15-PD3 (9), USNM 47150; sta. 15-PD4 (78), USNM 47151; sta. 15-PD9 (6), AMNH; sta. 15- PD10 (9), USNM 53408, and (24), AMNH; sta. 17-59 (6), USNM 53409, and (11), AMNH. Following WH records (H. Zibrowius, personal communication, 1979): sta. 324/66 (2), sta. 325/66 (1), sta. 330/66 (1), sta. 336/66 (3), sta. 357/66 (2), sta. 359/66 (2), sta. 360/66 (1), sta. 269/71 (4), sta. 210/11 (1) (all WH specimens deposited at ZIZM). Specimens (5) identified as B. cornu by Gardiner (1939), BM 1939.7,20.227-228, 234. Holotype.

Types. The holotype is deposited at the American Museum of Natural History (3368). Type-locality: 52°32'S, 61°15'W (south of East Falkland island); 358 m.

Distribution. Off Tierra del Fuego; off Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Scotia Ridge between Burdwood Bank and South Georgia (Map 13). Squires's (1969) record from off Gough Island unsubstantiated. Depth range: 75-1137 m."

Cairns 1982, pp. 52-54, Plate 16, figs. 4-7; Plate 17, figs. 1-3 Plate 18, fig. 7.

Geographic Distribution

Off Tierra del Fuego; off Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Scotia Ridge between Burdwood Bank and South Georgia.

Depth range: 75-1137 m.

(Cairns, 1982)

Specimens

Displaying 10 of 20 Specimens

Type Status Catalog No. Date Collected Location Coordinates Depth (m) Vessel
  45671 12/3/1962 Scotia Sea 53.13° S, 59.37° W 567 – 578 Eltanin R/V
  45672 3/14/1963 Scotia Sea 51.92° S, 56.65° W 645 – 845 Eltanin R/V
  47146 2/11/1964 South Atlantic Ocean 54.98° S, 64.88° W 586 – 641 Eltanin R/V
  47147 1/30/1966 Scotia Sea 54.13° S, 52.21° W 419 – 2288 Eltanin R/V
  47148 2/13/1964 South Atlantic Ocean 52.53° S, 63.88° W 229 Eltanin R/V
  47149 12/12/1962 South Atlantic Ocean 54.07° S, 63.58° W 247 – 293 Eltanin R/V
  47150 3/1959 Scotia Sea 54.2° S, 62.6° W 402 Vema R/V
  47151 3/1959 South Atlantic Ocean 54.2° S, 63.34° W 283 Vema R/V
  47152 1/31/1964 Antarctic Ocean 63.1° S, 86.88° W 250 – 540 Eltanin R/V
  47153 Images Available 9/18/1963 South Atlantic Ocean 56.1° S, 66.3° W 384 – 494 Eltanin R/V

Displaying 10 of 20 Specimens

View additional taxa  View all species collected at same locations as Balanophyllia malouinensis

External Resources

  • Cairns, S. D. 1982. Antarctic and Subantarctic Scleractinia, Biology of Antarctic Seas XI. Antarctic Research Series Volume 34. Ed. Kornicker LS. American Geophysical Union.

  • Squires, D. F. 1961. Deep sea corals collected by the Lamont Geological Observatory. 2. Scotia Sea corals. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 2046..