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Classification


Geographic Distribution

Antarctic Convergence illustration Antarctic convergence

Bathymetric Specimen Dispersal

1 individual specimen found for Enoploteuthis leptura.

Enoploteuthis leptura (Leach, 1817)  Species

Synonymy

Original Description
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“ENOPLOTEUTHIS LEPTURA (LEACH, 1817)

Figs. 1-5, 7.

Loligo leptura LEACH, 1817, p. 141; 1818, p. 411; 1818, p. 14, p1. 18, figs. 3, 4, French Translation, atlas (not verified); (in BLAINVILLE) 1818, p. 395, pl. of June, figs. 3-5. – BLAINVILLE, 1823, p. 137; 1823 a, p. 126. – FERUSSAC, 1823, p. 67, pl. fig. 3.

Loligo Smythii LEACH, 1817, p. 141; (in BLAINVILLE) 1818, p. 395. – BLAINVILLE, 1823, p. 137; 1823 a, p. 126. – FE­RUSSAC, 1823, p. 67.

Onychoteuthis leptura, ORBIGNY, 1826, p. 61.

Onychoteuthis Smythii, ORBIGNY, 1826, p. 61.

Enoploteuthis leptura, ORBIGNY, 1839, pl. 12, figs. 10-24. – RÜPPELL, 1844, p. 129 (not seen). – ORBIGNY, 1845, pl. 17, figs.1-9; 1845 a, pl. 14, figs. 1-9 (not seen). – VERANY, 1846, p. 17 (as Enoploteuthys = misspelling) (not seen). – ORBIGNY, 1848, p. 336. – GRAY, 1849, p. 46 (not seen). – ORBIGNY, 1855, p. 399, pl. 27, figs. 1-9. – HOYLE, 1886, P. 247 – PFEFFER, 1900, p. 167. – HOYLE, 1910, p. 409. – CHUN, 1910, p. 107, pl. 11, figs. 5, 6. – PFEFFER, 1912, p. 126. – ISHIKAWA, 1914, p. 410. – BERRY, 1918, p. 220. – THIELE, 1921, p. 444, pl. 54, figs. 6-8. – SASAKI, 1929, p. 238. – THIELE, 1934, p. 962. – REES and MAUL, 1956, p. 265. – DELL, 1958, p. 6. – ADAM, 1960, p. 16. – ROPER, 1964, p. 140-148.

Enoploteuthis Smythii (leptura), TRYON, 1879, p. 172, pl. 75, figs. 311-315.

Material:

adult male, ML 79.0 mm, "Gerda" Sta. 120; 23°32' N, 82°21' W; 19 June 1963; 1620-0 m.

adult male, ML 73.0 mm, "Discovery" 4743; 32°43' N, 16°45' W; 20 September 1961; 170-0 m.

adult female, ML 44.5 mm, "Dana" Sta. 1160 IV; 15°50' N, 26°32' W; 4 November 1921; 300 mw.

adult female, ML 21.0 mm, West Africa 1; 04°53' N, 0°37' W; 4 March 1960; Surface—from tuna stomach.

late juvenile females, ML 13.5-18.5 mm, West Africa 2 a–d; 04°55' N, 0°35' W; 4 February 1960; Surface—from tuna stomach.

Description

The Mantle is elongate, cylindrical, and tapers posteriorly to a blunt point (Fig. 1). The greatest width of the mantle is at the free anterior margin. The antero-dorsal margin is slightly produced in the midline. The ventral margin is slightly concave between the triangular ventro-lateral lappets of the mantle component of the locking apparatus. Most of the mantle is thick-walled and muscular, but the posterior tip becomes very thin and membranous—almost sac-like. The saccate tail apparently is not a continuation of the muscular mantle wall which terminates at the conus of the gladious, but rather it is an extension of integumentary layers which is filled with a reticulum of fluid-filled compartments. A long, thin band of muscle connects the tip of the tail with the mantle at the end of the gladius.

The Fins occupy nearly half the mantle length and are much broader than long. They unite posteriorly and merge with the mantle tissue slightly anterior to the tip. The free anterior lobe persists as the convex anterior margin of the fin. The lateral angle of the fin is rounded, and the posterior border is nearly straight at about a 45° angle to the body axis. Leading and trailing edges of the fins are very thin and fine, but in reserved specimens are usually curled under against the stouter fin muscle.

The Funnel is broad and muscular. The funnel component of the locking apparatus, located at the ventro‑lateral angle of the funnel, is a raised oblong structure with a median longitudinal groove which is narrow and deep anteriorly but flares broadly and becomes shallow posteriorly. This groove receives the ridge of the mantle component of the locking apparatus. The dorsal member of the funnel organ is horseshoe-shaped with long, broad limbs which taper to a point posteriorly and which terminate on the funnel retractor muscles. About halfway forward on each limb a long flap arises which extends to the anterior crosspiece of the structure. The ventral pads are irregularly oval and slightly pointed posteriorly. A broad semi-circular flap, the funnel valve, is fused laterally and posteriorly to the dorsal wall of the funnel tube but remains free anteriorly.

The Head is large and somewhat broader than the mantle width. The three nuchal folds are conspicuous and well-defined. The eye opening is moderately large, and the ventral half of the margin possesses a row of light organs. A conspicuous optic sinus projects anteriorly from the anterior margin of the eye opening. The eye is very large, and a row of nine round light organs appears on the ventral surface of the bulbus. The anterior and posterior terminal light organs are considerably larger than the seven closely packed middle organs and also are separated from them by a small space. The male specimen taken by the "Discovery" off the Cape Verde Islands has only seven eye light organs, but this is the only specimen of the Atlantic species of Enoploteuthis I have examined which shows fewer than the usual nine light organs.

The Arms are long, robust, and of nearly equal lengths. Arm II is usually slightly longer than the re­maining three arms which are subequal. All arms have biserial rows of strong hooks fitted with cutaneous sheaths. The number of hooks on each arm is given in Table 1. Only the arm tips are supplied with double rows of suckers which decrease greatly in diameter distally and suddenly become minute at the tips. Table 2 gives the number of hooks and suckers on each arm of three adult specimens of E. leptura. The dorsal arm is not keeled but has a slight aboral ridge along the distal one-third of the arm. The dorsal protective mem­brane of Arm I is very weakly developed, but the ventral one is very prominent with strong trabeculae. Arm II is similar to I with a slight aboral ridge distally, a weak dorsal, and a strong ventral protective mem­brane. The aboral keel of the third arm is well-developed as the swimming membrane, which originates at the base of the arm, becomes broad along the middle half, then tapers to the tip of the arm. Again, the ventral protective membrane is more strongly developed than the dorsal. On the ventral arm there is no aboral keel or ridge per se. However, the tentacular sheath extends along the dorsal aboral angle of the arm. It originates web-like between III and IV, and occupies nearly the entire length of IV. The ventral protective membrane is well-developed while the dorsal one is considerably weaker.

Table 1. Measurements (in mm), counts, and indices of Enoploteuthis leptura (LEACH, 1817), including the type of L. Smythii.

Specimen by Sta. No.

Type BM(NH)

UMML 31.483

Disc. 4743 a

D 1160 IV

W. Afr. 1

W. Afr. 2 a

W. Afr. 2 b

W. Afr. 2 c

W. Afr. 2 d

Sex

F

M

M

F

F

F

F

F

F

ML

50.0

79.0

73.0

44.5

21.0

18.5

15.5

15.0

13.5

MWI

34.0

30.0

31.4

36.4

57.7

49.7

51.5

56.6

53.3

HWI

-

31.9

25.4

40.4

50.0

42.1

41.9

40.0

47.4

FLI

44.0

59.5

58.4

42.6

42.9

40.5

38.6

33.3

39.3

FWI

80.4

67.1

68.9

74.1

81.0

71.0

67.0

46.6

63.7

ALI, I

67.2

57.0

66.3

62.9

109.2

105.2

113.0

93.4

100.0

ALI, II

74.0

59.5

66.3

67.4

122.3

111.0

120.5

96.6

118.6

ALI, III

65.0

59.3

68.5

67.4

123.3

108.0

117.4

100.0

107.3

ALI, IV

69.0

66.4

74.3

67.4

119.0

113.0

108.3

86.7

94.0

TLI

-

89.7

89.0

96.6

M

135.0

161.1

M

146.0

CLI

-

19.6

20.6

17.9

M

29.8

43.9

M

46.7

CH

-

6,3/6,3

4,2/3,3

7,5/7,4

M

M/5,5

5,5/5,5

M

M

AH, I

23

23

22

25

M

30

28

M

24

AH, II

22

24

22

25

M

30

26

M

20

AH, III

25

25

23

26

M

32

30

M

22

AH, IV

38

35

32

38

M

32

30

M

28

ELO

-

9

7

9

9

9

9

9

9

M = Character missing

Table 2. Number of hooks-suckers on the right/left arms of Enoploteuthis leptura.

Specimen:

Dana 1160 IV

UMML 31.483

Disc. 4743 a

ML:

44.5 mm

79.0 mm

73.0 mm

Sex:

F

M

M

Arm:

right/left

right/left

right/left

AH-S,

I

25-20/25-17

23-37/23-40

22-26/23-32

II

25-21/24-19

24-34/24-36

22-20+/21-25+

III

27-21/27-17

25-33/24-28

23-22/22-28

IV

38-20/35-16

35-39/34-33

32-18+/32-4+

+ Indicates a missing arm tip or lost suckers.

The first three pairs of arms in the male possess numerous, minute fleshy papillae evenly distributed over the entire oral surfaces between the bases of the hooks and suckers. The ventral arms do not exhibit this character.

Hectocotylization appears on the right ventral arm of the male in the form of a modification in the ventral protective membrane (Fig. 2). This membrane is extremely narrow and weak along the proximal two-third ­of the arm, followed by a sudden pronounced expansion into a long flap which continues distally for a distance occupied by about six pairs of hooks. Distal to the termination of the flap the protective membrane,

Still somewhat expanded, tapers to the tip of the arm. The dorsal protective membrane appears normal save for its expansion into small flaps along an area opposite to the large flap of the ventral protective membrane. The two rows of hooks extend along the arm, then are replaced by suckers near the arm tip, so that there appears to be no modification in the number, size, or distribution of hooks or suckers.

Suckers are biserially arranged over a small area of the distal arm tips and are relatively few in number. The suckers gradually diminish in size distally and suddenly become minute toward the tip. The outer surface of the sucker ring is papillated, the papillae appearing larger distally. The aperture is smooth proximally, but there are nine teeth distally arranged in an arc. The middle five teeth are long and slender, while the lateral teeth are short and blunt.

Tentacles are short—only a little longer than the arms—and thin and are triangular to oval in cross section. The tentacular club is not expanded but is relatively long and slender (Fig. 3). There are two rows of sheathed hooks on the hand with six to seven large hooks in the ventral row and four to five smaller hooks in the dorsal row. The dactylus has two rows of 10-15 small to minute suckers. The sucker rings possess seven small, narrow teeth around their distal half. The dactylus tapers to a narrow tip and is not expanded or rounded. A single, narrow club membrane arises on the dorsal surface of the hand in line between the first and second hooks of the dorsal row and extends to the tip of the dactylus. The carpal cluster is well-defined but long and narrow and consists of five to six each of suckers and buttons. There are no conspicuous ridges and grooves.

The Spermatophore of Enoploteuthis leptura has an extremely long sperm mass which occupies approximately one-half of the total length of the spermatophore (Fig. 4). The sperm mass extends to the aboral tip of the spermatophore. The cement body is short, only about one-fourth of the length of the sperm mass, and has one collar at its oral end. The spiral filament appears relatively simple with a few short longitudinal ridges in the aboral end of the apparatus.

Nearly the entire ventral surface of the animal is covered with Luminescent Organs which appear in orderly arrangements (Fig. 1 B). The ventral and ventro-lateral surfaces of the mantle possess a total of seven complex rows of photophores of two types. The larger type has a dark circumference with a light center, while the smaller type is white with no such dark ring. Least clearly defined is the outer lateral row with its scattered photophores. This row is short, extending from the anterior mantle margin to a point about in line with the anterior edge of the fin. The second row originates just median to the lappet of the locking apparatus and extends posteriorly, then curves laterally slightly and ends at a point in line with the middle of the fin. The next row (inner lateral) arises at the mantle margin just lateral to the midline and passes to the tip of the tail. But from a point in line with the posterior union of the fins with the tail tip the row loses its complex arrangement and appears as a single line of light organs. The seventh row of light organs has its anterior origin in either the right or left row just lateral to the midline somewhat posterior to the mantle margin. This row arches to the midline then runs straight posteriorly where the light organs become scattered before the row terminates at a point in line with the posterior union of the fins. The entire tail is free of light organs with the exception of the simple ventro-lateral rows already described. Until the anterior portion of the median row reaches the midline, all the light organs are of the small, whitish type only. There are a few scattered photophores on the dorso-lateral surface of the mantle. The mantle margin is ringed with a row of light organs which diminishes dorsally.

No photophores appear on either surface of the fins.

Light organs on the funnel are also arranged in rows. On the ventral surface are four rows, two of which lie just lateral to the clear midline area, while the other two are lateral to the first pair and median to the anterior part of the funnel component of the locking apparatus. These two lateral rows are quite short. Another row extends along the diagonal dorso-lateral angle on each side of the funnel.

Photophores on the ventral and lateral surfaces of the head are very numerous and are arranged in an orderly manner (Fig. 1 B). The ventral midline from the funnel groove to the V-notch formed between the bases of the ventral arms is completely devoid of light organs. All rows are paired. The medianmost row lies just lateral to the clear midline and originates with a scattered few white photophores in the anterior terminus of the funnel groove, then passes anteriorly over the head and runs along the aboral median angle of arm IV nearly to the tip. The next row has its origin on the prominent ventral rounded area between the nuchal folds and the funnel groove lateral to the funnel tube. Light organs here are very thickly clustered, then they thin somewhat and pass anteriorly over the head and along the aboral lateral angle of arm IV. This row runs along the longitudinal base of the tentacular sheath to the tip of the arm. The next row arises just lateral to the previously described row and curves anteriorly to end abruptly at a clear patch of skin which acts as a window to let out the light from the nine light organs on the ventral surface of the eyeball. The row then continues out along the lateral edge of the tentacular sheath of arm IV terminating nearly at the tip. A simple row of thinly distributed light organs originates at the ventro-lateral nuchal fold and passes lateral to the eye window to merge anteriorly with the row extending along the protective tentacular sheath of IV. The most lateral row originates at the nuchal folds and runs to the middle of the posterior border of the eye opening. Opposite this on the anterior border and dorsal to the conspicuous optic sinus the row con­tinues and passes along arm III between the longitudinal base of the swimming membrane and the aboral ventral angle. This row terminates just prior to the tip of the arm. The final row of photophores starts dorsal to the middle of the posterior eye opening margin and runs around the ventral half of the eye opening termi­nating at the optic sinus.

The Mandibles are illustrated in Fig. 5 A, B. The radular teeth are long and slender (Fig. 5 C), and the rachidian possesses a small cusp on either side.

Holotype: British Museum (Natural History).

Type Locality: 01°08' N, 07°26'30" E; collected by J. CRANCH, Congo Expedition to West Africa.

Bathymetric Distribution

Since there are so few specimens of E. leptura on record, an accurate evaluation of its bathymetric dis­tribution based on captures is not possible at this time. However, it may be assumed that this species is a mesopelagic animal which lives at moderate depths during the day and ascends toward the surface at night. Table 3 shows that the single "Dana" specimen was taken at night at 100 m over very deep water off the Cape Verde Islands, while the Gulf of Guinea specimens appear to be from the surface of moderately shallow water. These West African specimens were taken from the stomachs of two yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares.

Table 3. Bathymetric distribution of Enoploteuthis leptura (LEACH, 1817).

Specimen by Station No.

Depth of water (meters)

Depth of capture (meters)

Time of capture (2400 hours)

Dana 1160 IV

4400

100

0300

West Africa 1

200

0

0930

West Africa 2

95

0

1030

UMML 31.483

1620

1620-0

0330

Disc. 4743 a

2200?

170-0

2200

Judging from the partially digested condition of the squid and from the other material found in the stomachs, the tuna either had been feeding at intermediate depths or at the surface during the predawn hours on animals ascending from intermediate depths. Either situation would satisfy the indicated mesopelagic habitat of this species. The UMML specimen was captured in a small otter trawl which had fished the bottom at 1620 m, but in all probability, the capture was made closer to the surface while the net was being lowered or hauled. The "Discovery" specimen was taken over deep water at night within 170 m of the surface.

Geographic Distribution

Until the R/V "Gerda" captured a single male specimen in the southern Straits of Florida in the summer of 1963, there was no record of E. leptura from the western Atlantic or the Caribbean. With this capture, E. leptura displays a distribution which might be expected of a tropical Atlantic mesopelagic cephalopod. The known geographic range of E. leptura extends from Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Gulf of Guinea to the southern Straits of Florida (Fig. 6).

Growth

Unfortunately, no small individual was available for this study, so the early stages remain unknown. The four smallest specimens (mantle length 13.5 to 18.5 mm) represent about the same late juvenile stage of development and the largest of these, W. Africa 2 a, mantle length 18.5 mm, is illustrated (Fig. 7). Five of the eight available specimens were taken as partial stomach con­tents of yellowfin tuna, so while still specifically identifiable, most of the more delicate tissue has been digested. The three largest specimens are in excellent condition, but the redescription was originally based upon the female ("Dana" 1160 IV), because the males did not become available until the manuscript of this work was nearly ready for press. Table 1 gives the measurements and indices of Enoploteuthis leptura. Table 4 lists the raw data.

Table 4. Enoploteuthis leptura, raw data in mm.

Specimen:

UMML 31.483

Disc. 4743 a

Type BM(NH)

Dana 1160 IV

W. Afr. 1

W. Afr. 2 a

W. Afr. 2 b

W. Afr. 2 c

W. Afr. 2 d

Sex

M

M

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

ML

79.0

73.0

50.0

44.5

21.0

18.5

15.5

15.0

13.5

MW

23.7

22.9

17.0

16.2

12.1

9.2

8.0

8.5

7.2

HW

23.8

18.5

-

18.0

10.5

8.0

6.5

6.0

6.4

FL

47.0

42.6

22.0

19.0

9.0

7.5

6.0

5.0

5.3

FW

53.0

50.6

40.2

33.0

17.0

10.0

10.4

7.0

8.6

Arms

I

45.0

48.4

33.6

28.0

23.0

19.5

17.5

14.0

13.5

II

47.0

48.4

37.0

30.0

25.7

20.5

18.7

14.5

16.0

III

46.8

50.0

32.5

30.0

25.9

20.0

18.2

15.0

14.5

IV

52.4

54.2

34.5

30.0

25.0

20.9

16.8

13.0

12.7

TL

70.9

65.0

-

43.0

-

25.0

25.0

-

19.7

CL

15.5

15.0

-

8.0

-

5.5

6.8

-

6.3

The mantle in the late juvenile stage (Fig. 7) is about one-half as wide as the mantle length and curves posteriorly to end in a short, narrow tail. The fins are laterally pointed, united posteriorly, and show slight extension posteriorly along the tail.

The fins are short and the fin width is between two-thirds and three-fourths the mantle length. The head is large and the arms are very long. The tentacles are moderately long and very thin. The clubs are slender with the narrow carpal cluster and most of the hooks well-developed. Light organ arrangement on the ventral sur­faces of the mantle, funnel, and head is already well-defined at this stage. However, the light organs are not nearly so numerous as in larger specimens, and they are rather patchy in distribution along the photophore rows of the mantle. That is, a row may have two or three clusters of eight to ten light organs connected by three or four single organs. The patchy grouping is entirely regular so that the patches appear in the same position on the paired rows and these alternate with the patches of adjacent rows.

The adult mantle is long, narrow, and tapers into the tip of the saccate tail (Fig. 1). The mantle is about one-third as wide as the mantle length. The fins are broadly pointed laterally, are united, and extend posteriorly to fuse with the tail. The fins are about one-half as long and three-fourths as wide as the mantle length. The adult arms are proportionately very much shorter in relation to the mantle length than in younger specimens. Perhaps this is of some biological significance which allows the younger members of the species to capture and hold their prey more efficiently. The adult pattern of light organs shows no patchiness whatsoever, and the light organs are extremely numerous.

Discussion

The identity of Enoploteuthis leptura has been a stumbling block in the study of the genus ever since LEACH first described it. The full original description is given below (LEACH, 1817, p. 141):

Brachia omnia antliis hamatus: supplementaria antliis inferioribus simplicibus pedunculatis.

Loligo leptura:

L. branchiis supplementariis hamis liberis, cauda abrupta tenui. Mus. Brit.

Corpus et brachia externe laevia tuberculis nonnullis in lineis longitudinalibus interruptis digestis.

Loligo Smythii:

L. branchiis supplementariis hamis infra membrana instructis, cauda gradatim attenuata. Mus. Brit.

Corpus et brachia externe tuberculata: tuberculis purpureis apice albidis.

No illustration accompanied the original descriptions, but later LEACH (1818) in the Narrative of the Expedition to the River Zaire figured the types of Loligo leptura and L. Smythii in lateral view which give little indication of the specific characters. ORBIGNY's illustrations (1848, 1855) could easily be either this species or another, since again the characters shown are inconclusive. Indeed, from the evidence given of the earlier works there was no reason to believe that L. leptura and L. Smythii actually were conspecific, as ORBIGNY (1848) and subsequent authors contended.

For these reasons, later workers have expressed doubt concerning the relationship of the newer species of Enoploteuthis, both with each other and with the type of the genus. Even the exact nature of the genus was in doubt as late as 1960 when ADAM described the most recent possible addition, Enoploteuthis dubia.

During the course of this study, Dr. GILBERT L. Voss, Curator of the Marine Museum, Institute of Marine Science, visited several European museums and while in Great Britain re-examined LEACH'S original material of Loligo leptura and L. Smythii in the type collection of the British Museum (Natural History). The results of the examination were given to me upon Dr. Voss's return to Miami. Several interesting facts were revealed.

First, the type of Loligo leptura is a small specimen of about 25.0 mm mantle length and represents the very late juvenile stage described in the present work. It is damaged but has the typical plump body with the small attenuation at the tip of the mantle. It has the characteristic rows of light organs on the body of which the middle row converges with an inner lateral row on one side.

Secondly, the jar containing the type of Loligo Smythii is marked "syntypes" and contains a large adult Enoploteuthis leptura of 50.0 mm mantle length. Obviously this is the type of L. Smythii and is the specimen figured in LEACH, 1818. It is conspecific with L. leptura and represents the adult stage at which the entire body becomes somewhat attenuate, losing the plumpness of the juvenile stage. The middle row of light organs coalesces anteriorly with one of the inner lateral rows as in L. leptura.

Finally, the second syntype is not a specimen of Enoploteuthis leptura, but consists of the head and arms of a specimen of Abraliopsis gilchristi (ROBSON).

Dr. Voss examined the specimens of E. leptura reported upon in the present paper and declared them conspecific with the specimens he examined at the British Museum (NH). His notes upon the adult specimen of E. Smythii (= leptura) at the British Museum are appended, along with the counts and measurements Table 5):

Table 5. Counts and measurements (in millimeters) of Enoploteuthis Smythii (LEACH, 1817).

ML 50.0

Arms I

33.6

Hooks I

23

MW 17.0

II

37.0

II

22

FL 22.0

III

32.5

III

25

FW 40.2

IV

34.5

IV

38

Loligo Smythii LEACH, 1817. Syntype. The arms are long for an enoploteuthid, and as far as can be told from the largest specimen of Loligo Smythii, only the third arms are keeled for about the distal 4/5. The arms bear hooks over most of the length, but these are followed by a small group of pairs of small suckers and on I, II, and III terminate in two rows of minute suckers at the tip. The tentacles are very slender but have their clubs intact. The hand in the largest specimen bears eight hooks which appear to be in a single row, but this may be due to drying out of the club.

The light organs on the mantle are of two kinds: large black ones with clear centers and small white ones. These are arranged in seven distinct rows, diverging somewhat laterally posteriorly, and the center one does not reach the anterior border of the mantle. Apparently only those of the first two (ventrally) lateral rows reach to the tip of the body or nearly so.

There are six rows of light organs on the funnel. The ventral rows are the longest and extend over most of the length f the funnel. The lateral rows are short and are ventro-anterior to the anterior edge of the funnel locking groove. The final row on each side is almost within the funnel-head groove and slightly dorsal.

The head bears four rows of light organs marked by dark photophores, but within the ventral paired rows lie two more rows of white organs making six rows in all. There are circles of light organs around the eyes.

The ventral arms bear two main rows of light organs, ventral and dorsal, and a thin, scattered row of organs along the narrow membrane on the dorsal side. Only the median row reaches the end of the arm. The III arm bears a row of light organs along the base of the keel for nearly 3/5 of the arm length (?). There are no light organs visible on the re­maining arms.

This is a gravid female, No. 63 a in GRAY'S manuscript of the Catalogue.

This is Enoploteuthis leptura presented by J. CRANCH, Esq. Congo Expedition. The locality data reads: West Africa, Lat. 01º08' N, Long. 07°26'30" E.”

(Roper, 1966: 9-17)

Geographic Distribution

Until the R/V "Gerda" captured a single male specimen in the southern Straits of Florida in the summer of 1963, there was no record of E. leptura from the western Atlantic or the Caribbean. With this capture, E. leptura displays a distribution which might be expected of a tropical Atlantic mesopelagic cephalopod. The known geographic range of E. leptura extends from Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Gulf of Guinea to the southern Straits of Florida (Fig. 6).

Specimens

Type Status Catalog No. Date Collected Location Coordinates Depth (m) Vessel
  884991 3/5/1971 South Atlantic Ocean 38.6° S, 52° W 240 – 262 Walther Herwig R/V

View additional taxa  View all species collected at same locations as Enoploteuthis leptura