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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology

drawing of nemertean

A drawing of Nipponnemertes bimaculata which is a northern Pacific rim species found from central California around to southernmost Sea of Japan. This specimen, drawn from life (circa 1901), was from Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station on the central California coast.

bar Crandall image

Frank B. CrandallResearch Associate


  • Phone: 202-633-1771
  • Fax: 202-633-0182
  • E-mail: crandalf@si.edu

  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 163
    Washington, DC 20013-7012

  • Courier Delivery Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th and Constitution Ave, NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0163
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    Responsibilities: Research Associate (Nemertea)

    Education:

    University of California, Berkeley, B.A. (1952-1959) Zoology (Marine Invertebrate)/Engineering (Mechanical). Graduate studies in Electrical Engineering and Marine Biology (1957-1960).

    U.S. Air Force, School of Aerospace Medicine, (1961) Lectures in Aerospace Medicine.

    University of California, Los Angeles and Irvine, (1968-1969) Postgraduate and Professional courses in macrosystems analysis and macrosystems economics, focusing on the planning, analysis and economics of large-scale public infrastructural systems with greater than 50 year operational life.

    California Polytechnic University, San Dimas, (1969) Special program in Engineering Management.

    Northwestern University, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, (1982) Executive Development Institute.

    Liverpool John Moores University (England), (1995--) Part-time overseas research Ph.D program in the School of Biological and Earth Sciences on the taxonomy and systematics of the Cratenemertea. Estimated submission date for approximately 950 page thesis is 2007.

    University of Goteborg (Sweden), (2002-- ) Overseas part-time Ph.D. program in phylogenetic systematics.

    Research Interests:
    Hoplonemerteans, family Cratenemertidae in particular, terrestrial nemerteans

    Professional Activities:
    President, American Association for Zoological Nomenclature

    Selected Publications:

    Gibson, R. & Crandall, F. B. 1989. The genus Amphiporus Ehrenberg (Nemertea, Enopla, Monostiliferoidea). Zool. Scr., 18:453-470.

    Crandall, F. B. 1993. Major characters and enoplan systematics. Hydrobiologia 266:115-140.

    Crandall, F. B. 1993. The genus Valdivianemertes Stiasny Wijnhoff 1923 (Nemertea, Enopla, Hoplonemertea): nomenclatural status and proper systematic position. Hydrobiologia 266:175-184.

    Crandall, F. B., Norenburg, J. L. & Gibson, R. 1998. Gonadogenesis, embryogenesis, and unusual oocyte origin in Notogaeanemertes folzae Riser, 1988 (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea). Hydrobiologia 365:93-107.

    Crandall, F. B. & Gibson, R. 1998. A second genus of pelagic Cratenemertidae (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea). Hydrobiologia 365:173- 198. [With an appendix of the English translation of V.S. Korotkevich, 1961.]

    Crandall, F. B. & Norenburg, J. L. 1998. NEMERTES: the nemertean digital knowledge base. Second National Science Foundation Conference on Partnerships for the Enhancement of Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET II), March 1998, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Crandall, F. B. & Norenburg, J. L. 2000. Digital imaging and the NEMERTES information system. Third National Science Foundation Conference on Partnerships for the Enhancement of Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET III), April 2000, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

    Crandall, F. B., 2001. A cladistic view of the Monostilifera (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea) with interwoven rhynchocoel musculature: a preliminary assessment. Hydrobiologia 456: 87-110.

    Crandall, F. B. & Norenburg, J. L., 2001. Checklist of the Nemertean Fauna of the United States, Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution Electronic Publication, PDF file (403 KB), pp. i-ii, 1-36.

    Crandall, F. B., Norenburg, J. L., Chernyshev, A. V., Maslakova, S. A., Schwartz, M. L. & Kajihara, H., 2002. Checklist of the Nemertean Fauna of Japan and Northeastern Asia. Smithsonian Institution Electronic Publication, PDF file (576 KB), pp. i-ii, 1-43.

    Crandall, F. B., 2006. Morphological adaptations of the Cratenemertidae to the epipelagic habitat and lifestyle. Journal of Natural History 40 (15-16): 981-998.

    Full Publication List

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